Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Photography"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Photography Rules of Composition
2 Presentation Overview Welcome to an introductionto photography. This lecture has has been designed to meet the following objectives:Work to take your own digital and traditional photographsHelp you understand basic/intermediate techniques used by photographers.Work with a group to prepare a PowerPoint presentation that illustrates an understanding of the basic elements of design.
3 Presentation Contents I. INTRODUCTIONII. COMPOSITION: III. LIGHTING1. Arrangement2. Filling the Frame IV. AESTHETICS3. Rule of Thirds4. Back, Mid, Fore5. Triangulate6. Symmetry7. Focal Point
4 I. Introduction - What is Photography? In Greek the word “photograph” can be broken down as follows:- “photo” = light- “graph” = to writeThus the word photograph means to write using light as one’s “ink”.Think of photography then as a type of artwork, photographs capturing the artist’s unique viewpoint. The artist decides what he or she wants the viewer to see and how it will look. Successful photographs affect our feelings, leaving us pleased, excited, entertained, saddened, inspired, or even disturbed.
5 I. Introduction - Taking Pictures as Art In today’s class you will be learning tips and tricks on how to properly compose a photograph. At the end of this presentation you will undertake an activity to reinforce this knowledge--so pay attention!Exposing is the scientific or technical bit, where you expose your film to light through the lens of the camera. Having a basic knowledge of how your camera works can help you expose pictures in new and exciting ways.The two basic rules of good photography are to COMPOSE and EXPOSE.Composing is the artistic element of taking pictures, where you arrange all of the elements of your picture within the frame or viewfinder to produce a pleasing composition. Think of composing as the “set up” phase before taking a picture.
6 II. Composition - Basic Techniques The modern camera is capable of many things. It can auto-focus, work out exposure, select a suitable shutter speed or aperture, along with a multitude of other functions. Yet YOU must still be in charge of composing what goes into the photograph!If you are using an automatic 35mm camera, then your principle area of control is going to be in composition. We cannot tell you how to “see” a good picture, but we can provide you with a number of basic rules to improving the composition within your photograph.
7 II. Composition - Technique #1: Arrangement There are 3 basic ways to arrange the elements within the composition:- Physically move objects relative to each other.- Tell people to move relative to each other.- Move yourself! Change your viewpoint.
8 II. Composition Technique #2: Fill the Frame Make sure your subject FILLS UP THE FRAME. The best way to do this is move slightly closer to your subject. Before you press the shutter release, have a quick look around the perimeter of your subject. In our wonderful 3D world, that telegraph pole is in the distance, but in the 2D world of photography, that same pole is sticking out of someone.Sometimes your mind tends to exaggerate what you see in the camera’s viewfinder. You often perceive things slightly larger than they actually are, and you also tend not to notice ‘slight’ distractions. When this happens you end up with photos with large areas of wasted space and/or people with things growing out of their heads.
9 Fill the entire page.Do not leave any empty areas.Zoom in on the subject.Can’t see muchhere.Much better !
11 II. Composition Technique #3: The Rule of Thirds One of the most popular 'rules' in photography is the Rule Of Thirds. It is also popular among artists. It works like this:Using the Rule of Thirds helps produce nicely balanced pictures. Also, as you have to position things relative to the edges of the frame, it helps get rid of 'tiny subject surrounded by vast empty space' syndrome.Good places to put things: third of the way up, third of the way in from the left, etc. Poor places to put things: right in the middle, right at the top, right at the bottom, away in the corner.As well as using the intersections you can arrange areas into bands occupying a third, or place things along the imaginary lines.Imaginary lines are drawn dividing the image into thirds both horizontally and vertically. You place important elements of your composition where these lines intersect.
12 You can also arrange your photo into 3 areas - left, center, right.
13 II. Composition Technique #4: Back, Mid, & Foreground Arrange your page into 3 areas: foreground, midground and background.Foreground means front and it is usually on the bottom. These are the things closest to the viewer.Midground means middle.Background is usually in the top third of the page and it is the things that are farthest from you.
15 Overlapping is another way to create a foreground, midground, and background.
16 II. Composition Technique #5: Triangulate Make a triangle. Arranging 3 items in a triangle makes the viewer’s eye move around the page and creates an interesting arrangement.News and sports photographers also use this technique a good deal.
17 Check out the cover of Disney videos Check out the cover of Disney videos. They usually arrange their characters in a triangle.
18 II. Composition Technique #6: Symmetry Symmetry means a well balanced arrangement of parts. Radial symmetry means an object is balanced around a central point, like the images above.
19 II. Composition Technique #6: Symmetry Axial symmetry means that something is balanced along an axis, or the same on both sides. It is like a mirror image.
20 II. Composition Technique #7: Focal Point Have a focal point. A focal point is the most important thing to which you want your viewer to pay attention. It is the first thing that draws the viewer’s eye.What is the focal point in these photographs ?
21 III. Lighting - Tips and Tricks Lighting can create a mood or feeling in your photograph, and works to emphasize your focal point.You can use highlights and shadows, natural or artificial lighting, contrast, time of day and weather to create different lighting effects.
22 III. Lighting - Tips and Tricks Lighting can create a mood or a feeling in your photograph.Highlights and shadows can make objects stand out or fade into the background. Highlighted areas (where the light is shining the most) make objects stand out or appear to look closer. Shadows make objects recede or create negative space.Highlighting an object can make it the focal point.
23 You can use time of day or weather to create a mood. This photograph was taken at dusk after a thunderstorm. The yard is quiet. A mist rises over the back field. Remember foreground, midground, background ?
25 Contrast is the difference between the darkest value and the lightest value. High contrast can create bold and dramatic effects. Low contrast can create a subdued, mysterious or emotional photograph.
27 IV. Aesthetics Tips and Tricks Often photographers look for a different than ordinary point of view.Patterns and repetition can make a photograph interesting and unified.Aesthetic quality in a photograph makes it interesting to look at. The artist challenges the viewer to think, wonder, or feel.Aesthetic photographs can be created by catching an everyday occurrence at the right moment, by chance, or by carefully planning and setting up the space.
31 Go forth and take photographs with good composition. Arrange your subject so that it is well balanced and interesting. Remember:- Choose an interesting point of view.- Use lighting to your advantage.- Challenge the viewer to to think, wonder, feel.