Aperture Opening in the lens that can change size to let varying amounts of light through to the sensor. Measured by f/stop, it is expressed as a fraction. For example…an f/stop of f/4 is a larger opening than f/16 in the same way the fraction ¼ is larger than 1/16. The larger the opening, the more light is allowed in.
Depth of Field Distance between the nearest and farthest objects in acceptable focus. Affected by the aperture setting. A wide aperture setting like f/2.8 means less depth of field. A narrow aperture such as f/16 means more of the scene will be in sharp focus.
Shutter Shutter – allows light to pass to the film/sensor for a set amount of time. Shutter speed – exposure time, how long the shutter allows light to hit the sensor between pressing the shutter release and the actual capture of the photograph. Faster shutter speed (like 1/2000 sec.) freezes actions. Slower shutter speed like (1/5 sec.) blurs movement.
What Mode Do You Use? 1. Taking photos at a football game? 2. Taking photos of a friend sitting in a chair? 3. Taking photos of a ladybug on a flower? 4. Taking photos of the Grand Canyon? 5. Taking photos at Running Club? 6. Taking photos of the moon?
How do I take a good picture? Know how your camera works. Hold your camera correctly ◦ Hold the camera straight. ◦ Keep arms in towards your body to keep camera as still as possible. ◦ If your camera has a lens…use right hand to hold camera body and operate the shutter release, use your left hand to support the lens. ◦ If you have a compact camera, use your right hand to hold the camera body and operate the shutter release, use your left hand to support the left side of the camera. ◦ Spread your feet apart and use your feet and legs for stability. You’re a tripod! Know your subject. Know the elements of photography.
Composition The arrangement of the subject and it’s surroundings within the viewfinder. Arrange the picture in the viewfinder so that it matches what your brain sees. Include only those things that enhance the subject and avoid or delete things that detract from it. Things to consider… ◦ What is your subject? ◦ How much of the frame do you want to fill? (How close do you want to be?) ◦ What is the best place to put the subject in the frame? ◦ What in the background do I want to include or not capture?
Rule of Thirds Make your subject a little off center. Pretend your viewfinder is a tic-tac-toe board ◦ Put your subject where any of the lines intersect
Light Quality Describes the source, amount and direction of lighting in a photo. Source – sun, lamp, overhead lighting, spotlight Direction – above, under, behind, in front of or to the side of subject Amount – bright, dim, dark Ways to adjust for lighting problems ◦ 1. have sun behind you ◦ 2. use your flash ◦ 3. use appropriate mode on camera ◦ 4. use reflector, diffuser, filter, etc.
Depth Focus – zoom in on subject and adjust focus so that only your subject is in focus. ◦ The sharpness or clarity of an image. Can create sharp detail or blurry edges. Foreground framing – put something close to the camera and put your subject further away OR put your subject in front of something you want to photograph.
Angle of View Position from where you took the photo. Try to take your photo from somewhere the viewer doesn’t always get to go Above your subject Below your subject In front of your subject
Line What moves the eye around the photo. ◦ Diagonal ◦ Curved ◦ Vertical ◦ Horizontal
Pattern and Shape Our minds visually organize what we see into shapes. Use shapes that are pleasing to the eye. ◦ Rhythm – repetition. Example – fence posts, keys on a keyboard ◦ Symmetry – photo looks like a mirror image. May occur vertically or horizontally ◦ Triangle – a triangular shape makes strong diagonal lines ◦ Shape – can be emphasized using silhouette or backlight.
Texture Capturing something your viewer may want to touch Fill the frame with the subject Abstract – texture may be the subject of the photo, so that view doesn’t know what it is. Examples – sand, sea shells, pine needles, rose petals
Color Gives viewers a sense of mood, place and time of year Moves eye around a composition and creates a sense of space on a flat surface. Colors can be… Bold and vivid Monochromatic – black and white, sepia Muted