Presentation on theme: "INF1090 Special Project Photography. It’s just taking pictures, right? Photographers have a lot to think about when taking photographs. Professional photography."— Presentation transcript:
It’s just taking pictures, right? Photographers have a lot to think about when taking photographs. Professional photography is another form of art Photographers know how their camera works Photographers look for specific things like the best angle, composition, contrast, patterns and balance in their photographs. This unit will focus on learning the basic compositional techniques that photographers use.
The Camera Anatomy Aperture- The diaphragm of the lens. In fancy cameras, it can be adjusted to let in less or more light, depending on how big it is ISO- Speed – This is a measurement of how sensitive the film is to light, agreed upon by the International Organizational Standard. Average film is rated at ISO 400. It can go up much higher, which can be used for situations where there is less light. In digital cameras, the ISO speed is basically a measure of how much light is necessary for a good picture. The higher the number, the less light is required.
Activity 1 A) Take two photographs of a moving person or object by changing the shutter speed setting of the camera. B) Take 3 photographs in a lower-light setting and each time change the ISO setting on the camera. Experiment and see what the results are. Place the images in a Word document and describe your results in a paragraph. What are the differences?
Basic Techniques Photographic composition is the pleasing arrangement of subject matter elements within the picture area. Creative photography depends foremost on the photographer's ability to see as the camera sees because a photograph does not reproduce a scene quite the way we see it. The camera sees and records only a small isolated part of the larger scene, reduces it to only two dimensions, frames it, and freezes it. It does not discriminate as we do. When we look at a scene we selectively see only the important elements and more or less ignore the rest. A camera, on the other hand, sees all the details within the field of view. This is the reason some of our pictures are often disappointing. Backgrounds may be cluttered with objects we do not remember, our subjects are smaller in the frame or less striking than we recall, or the entire scene may lack significance and life.
Rule of Thirds One of the most popular 'rules' in photography is the Rule Of Thirds. It is also popular amongst artists. It works like this: Imaginary lines are drawn dividing the image into thirds both horizontally and vertically. You place important elements of your composition where these lines intersect. I've even made a little diagram for you
Rule of Thirds As well as using the intersections you can arrange areas into bands occupying a third or place things along the imaginary lines. As you can see it is fairly simple to implement. Good places to put things; third of the way up, third of the way in from the left, you get the idea. The main focus point of the bee is right on the line.
Activity 2 Using the rule of 3 rd s, shoot 3 different pictures Explain how you used the rule of 3rds in your pictures. Place them in a Word document and explain your findings.
Good Photos are Seldom Created By Chance The general principles of photography: Center of interest Subject placement Simplicity Viewpoint and camera angle Balance Shapes and lines Pattern Volume Lighting Texture Tone Contrast Framing Foreground Background Perspective
Centre of Interest Where is your eye drawn? The colours really make it ‘pop’
Subject Placement Interesting placement of the main focus of your photo
Simplicity Sometimes photographers try to put too much into a picture. Simple is better. In this photo we have only 3 things: Our subject, the waves balancing the other half of the photo and the background.
Viewpoint and Camera Angle Adds another perspective. Get down low or high, or change the angle.
Balance There is no wasted space, yet it is not cluttered. The dark bottle adds contrast and fills the space to the right of the bright fish.
Balance I find my eyes drawn to the pawns, yet the Queen still takes up a dominating amount of space.
When photographing most subjects, you face the problem of how to symbolize three-dimensional objects in a two-dimensional picture. It sometimes helps to think of two different ways three-dimensional objects appear: as positive, or occupied space (volume) or as negative, or unoccupied space. Although a photograph is inherently two-dimensional, it can convey the sense of depth. When this happens, we have volume, i.e. a three-dimensional impression. The best way to achieve this is by inserting elements in different planes in the image. For instance, a landscape photography picturing a panorama, will give a greater sensation of spatiality if a nearer element is present in the foreground, such as a shrub or a person.
Volume Another example of creating volume might be the insertion of two identical subjects at different distance; they will be reproduced at different scales and will convey an impression of depth. Usually, the photographer must ensure that the elements giving the sense of depth be in focus. Technically this is accomplished by setting the depth of focus as high as possible. Sometimes you may even take advantage of the atmosphere to render depth, because the further the objects, the mistier they appear ("aerial perspective").
Texture Photographing different kinds of textures. Can you feel what the wall is like in your mind? Texture can give feeling, character and detail.
Lighting Affects the mood and look. Try to set up a shot that uses light in an interesting way.
Tone The qualities or intensities of colour. Look at all the different greens
Framing Natural formations or man-made that create borders and focus the image
Foreground and Background which is the subject? (one of each)
Activity 3 Find one picture for each of the (14) above categories Choose 3 categories, and take 2 of your own pictures for each category Be creative Don’t be afraid Have fun! Place the photos in a Word document and explain how the photos demonstrate each concept.