 # Marginal Costing BY Prof. V.S Meena. Marginal Costing Meaning of Marginal cost – Marginal cost means that increase of total cost witch happens by increased.

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Marginal Costing BY Prof. V.S Meena

Marginal Costing Meaning of Marginal cost – Marginal cost means that increase of total cost witch happens by increased or decreased by one unit in the production volume. Example – Unit Total cost Rs. Marginal cost Rs. 0 500 (Fixed cost) - 1 800 300 2 1100 600 3 1400 900 Marginal costing is a variable cost.

BBreak even point (no Profit no loss) CCost volume profit (c/s x 100) MMarginal of Safety (S-BEP)

Break Even Point - llefoPNsn fcUnq js[kk fp= ds ek/;e ls fdl lhek rd oLrqvksa dk mRiknu vFkok foØ; djuk gkfuizn gS rFkk fdl fcUnq ds i’pkr ykHk izn gksxkA lkFk gh fdruh oLrqvksa dh fcØh ij fdruk ykHk gkfu jgsxhA ;g ckr lefoPNsn fcUnq ds vkxs & ihNs okyh fLFkfr ls Kkr gks tkrh gSA vr,o ;g js[kk fp= O;kolkf;;ksa ds fy, mi;ksfxrkiw.k gS %&

Example – Product (in units) -200040006000800010000 Fixed Costs (in Rs.)2000 Variable Costs (50 paise per unit)10002000300040005000 Sales Price (Rs. 1 per Unit)200040006000800010000

o x y 8000 6000 4000 2000 Sales and costs (Rs.) Marginal of Safety Total Costs Sales Break Even Point Profit Variable Cost 10000 Fixed Cost 200040006000800010000 Output in Units

Break Even Point Graph Break Even Point : - F x S S - V = 2000 x 4000 4000 - 2000 BEP=4000 Break Even Point is a No Profit No Loss That is : Fixed Cost = 2000 Variable Cost = 2000 Total Cost = 2000+2000 = 4000 Total Sales = 4000 Profit & Loss = 4000 – 4000 = 0

bl izdkj ;fn ge 1 0000 Units dh fcØh dks vk/kkj ekudj fuEu dh x.kuk djrs gSA fn;k x;k gS & Product in Unit = 10000 Fixed Cost (Rs.) = 2000 Variable Cost = 5000 (50 Paise Pur Units) Sales = 10000 Kkr djuk gS & (1) BEP = F x S S - V = 2000 x 10000 10000 - 5000 BEP = 4000 (1) Margin of Safety :- Total Sales - BEP 10000 - 4000 = 6000 lqj{kk lhek ftruh vf/kd gksxh mruh gh vPNh gSA

(3) Profit Volume Ratio - Profit Volume Ratio or P/V Ratio og nj gS ftlesa ek=k dh c<+ksRrjh ds lkFk ykHk c<+rk gSA ykHk ek=k vuqikr ] ek=k esa ifjorZu gksus ds Qy Lo:i ykHkksa esa tks ifjorZu gksrk gS mls Kkr djus dh dqath gSA Formula :- P/V Ratio = S - V S X100 10000 - 5000 10000 X100 P/V Ratio == 50 %

;fn ges 10000 :- ykHk dekuk gks rks fcØh fdruh djuh gksxhA Example Fixed Cost = 2000 Profit Desired = 10000 P/V Ratio = 50% Formula - F + Pd P/V Ratio Sales in Rs. = 2000 + 10000 50 % Sales in Rs. = =24000 10]000 :- bfPNr ykHk dekus ds fy, gesa 24000 :- dh fcØh djuk gksxkA

Advantage of Marginal Costing :- (1)Easy To understand. (2)Helpful in Profit Planning. (3)Helpful in cost control. (4)Helpful in Decision Making : - (a)Make or Buy Decision (b)Capturing the foreign Markets. (c)Change of Product Mix

(d) Pricing – (I) Sales Price in Normal Condition (II) Determination of Minimum Price (III) Determination of Price below the Total cost. (IV) Temporary closure of production. (V) Permanent closure of the factory

THANKS

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