13 Cervical Spine Injuries cont. Brachial Plexus InjuriesAcute Burners or StingersChronic Burners or StingersSuprascapular Nerve Injury
14 Thoracic Spine Injuries Thoracic Contusions, Strains, and SprainsThoracic Spinal Fractures and ApophysisScheurmann’s DiseaseSpondylolisthesis
15 Lumbar Spine Injuries Lumbar Contusions, Strains, and Sprains Low Back PainSciaticaLumbar Disc InjuriesLumbar Fractures and Dislocations
16 Sacrum and Coccyx Injuries Sacroiliac Joint SprainASISPSISSacrotuberous ligamentSacrospinous ligamentCoccygodyniaDirect blow to coccyx causing fracture or contusion to the area causing pain to the nerves.
17 EvaluationHOPSActive motion should not be performed when there is pain over the vertebrae or when there are motor or sensory deficits noted.Palpation- Warning signs should include temperature, swelling, point tenderness, deformity, crepitus, muscle spasm, and cutaneous sensation.