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Spinal Injuries Chapter 11. Anatomy of the Spine Cervical Vertebrae – : A1 Thoracic Vertebrae – : A2 Lumbar Vertebrae – : A3 Sacrum – : A4 Coccyx – :

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Presentation on theme: "Spinal Injuries Chapter 11. Anatomy of the Spine Cervical Vertebrae – : A1 Thoracic Vertebrae – : A2 Lumbar Vertebrae – : A3 Sacrum – : A4 Coccyx – :"— Presentation transcript:

1 Spinal Injuries Chapter 11

2 Anatomy of the Spine Cervical Vertebrae – : A1 Thoracic Vertebrae – : A2 Lumbar Vertebrae – : A3 Sacrum – : A4 Coccyx – : A5

3 Cervical Vertebrae C1 – A C2 – B C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7

4 Specialized Cervical Vertebrae

5 Typical Cervical Vertebrae (C3-C7)

6 Thoracic Vertebrae

7 Lumbar Vertebrae

8 Sacrum and Coccyx

9 Intervertebral Discs Disc nucleus = Annulus Fibrosus No blood supply to disks = Function:

10 Intrinsic Muscles of the back “Deep” muscles Three layers: –Superficial layer – Splenius Muscles –Intermediate layer – divided into 3 vertical columns Spinalis – medial column Longissimus – intermediate column Iliocostalis – lateral column –Deep layer – Semispinalis, Multifidus group, and rotators.

11 Muscles of the Spine – Superficial Layer Splenius Capitis: A Origin –Lower ligament nuchae C3 – C7, C7 – T4 spinous processes and supraspinous ligaments T1-3 Insertion –Temporal bone (mastoid process), occiput (surface below lateral 1/3 of the nuchal line) Action

12 Muscles of the Spine – Superficial Layer Splenius Cervicis: B Origin –Spinous processes of T3-6. Insertion –Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1-3 Action

13 Muscles of the Spine – Intermediate Layer, Medial Column Spinalis Capitis: I Origin –C5 – C7 and T1 – T3 vertebrae (spinous processes). Insertion –Occiput between the superior and inferior nuchal lines. Action

14 Muscles of the Spine – Intermediate Layer, Medial Column Spinalis Cervicis: J Origin –C6 – C7 and T1 – T2 spinous processes. Insertion – C1 – C3 spinous processes. Action

15 Muscles of the Spine – Intermediate Layer, Medial Column Spinalis Thoracis: K Origin –T11 – T12 spinous processes Insertion –T1 – T4 spinous processes Action

16 Muscles of the Spine – Intermediate Layer, Intermediate Column Longissimus Capitis: F Origin –T1 – T5 transverse processes, C4 – C7 articular processes Insertion –Temporal bone (mastoid process [posterior margin]) Action

17 Muscles of the Spine – Intermediate Layer, Intermediate Column Longissimus Cervicis: G Origin –T1 – T5 vertebrae tips of transverse processes Insertion –C2 – C6 vertebrae posterior tubercles of transverse processes Function

18 Muscles of the Spine – Intermediate Layer, Intermediate Column Longissimus Thoracis: H Origin –L1 – L5 vertebrae transverse processes Insertion –L1 – L3 vertebrae superior articular facets, T1 – T12 vertebrae transverse processes, ribs 2 – 12. Function

19 Muscles of the Spine – Intermediate Layer, Lateral Column Iliocostalis Cervicis: C Origin –Ribs 3 – 6 (angles), sometimes also ribs 1 and 2. Insertion –C4 – C6 vertebrae transverse processes, posterior tubercles. Action

20 Muscles of the Spine – Intermediate Layer, Lateral Column Iliocostalis Thoracis: D Origin –Ribs 12 – 7 upper borders at angles Insertion –Ribs 1 – 6 at angles, C7 transverse processes dorsal aspect (bottom) Action

21 Muscles of the Spine – Intermediate Layer, Lateral Column Iliocostalis Lumborum: E Origin –Iliac Crest (external lip) and Sacrum (posterior surface) Insertion –Ribs 5 or 6 – 12 (angles on inferior borders) Action

22 Muscles of the Spine – Deep Layer Semispinalis Capitis: L Origin –C7 and T1 – T6 as a series of tendons from the tips of the transverse processes. Insertion –Occiput between the inferior and superior nuchal line Action

23 Muscles of the Spine – Deep Layer Semispinalis Thoracis: N Origin –T6 – T10 vertebrae transverse processes Insertion –C6 – C7 and T1 – T4 vertebrae spinous processes Action

24 Muscles of the Spine – Deep Layer Mulitfidus Group: O Origin –Sacrum (as low as S4 foramen), Erector spinae aponeurosis, Ilium (PSIS) and adjacent crest, Sacroiliac ligaments (posterior), T1 – T12 vertebrae transverse processes, and C4 – C7 vertebrae articular processes Insertion –A higher vertebra (spinous process) – may span 2 – 4 vertebrae before inserting. Action

25 Muscles of the Spine – Deep Layer Rotators Group:m P Origin –Transverse process of one lumbar, or thoracic vertebra Insertion –Base of spine of the next highest vertebra Action Deep to multifidus group

26 Normal Posture Everything lines up

27 Head Forward Posture

28 Postural Concerns

29 Postural Concerns - Lordosis Normal Curve Lordosis Curve

30 Postural Concerns - Scoliosis

31 Common Injuries Posterior Disc Bulge Brachial Plexus Injury Cervical Spine Injury

32 Posterior Disc Bulge Also known as a herniated disc Not common in younger athletes Numbness, tingling, and pain can occur Poor posture and body mechanics most likely cause Rehab to improve posture may relieve pain, but surgery may be necessary

33 Brachial Plexus Injury “Stinger” or “Burner” Three ways it can happen Common for football players “Cowboy” collar or neck rolls help prevent this May get numbness, tingling, burning sensation, and loss of strength/ROM. May return when symptom free, full strength, full ROM, and problem free evaluation by ATC or team physician

34 Cervical Spine Injury tRD2FzuxacM

35 Cervical Spine Fracture –Causes: Axial load/direct blow –Signs/Symptoms: Loss ROM or pain with movement Bruising / Swelling Numbness/tingling Muscle weakness in appendages Pain (can radiate to shoulders and arms) Cervical Spine Strain –Causes: Whiplash Sleeping in an incorrect position Burner/stinger –Signs/Symptoms: Loss ROM Pain with movement


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