Presentation on theme: "Foundation for Faith Based Organizations"— Presentation transcript:
1 Foundation for Faith Based Organizations www.NYCHepBC.org Hepatitis CPresenters: Please feel free to include your personal program contact info on this title slideFoundation for Faith Based Organizations
2 Goals To understand the liver and it’s role in the body To understand liver health & diseaseTo understand Hepatitis C:How it is TransmittedThe Testing ProcessTreatment OptionsPreventionBe able to find Hep C Services in NYC
3 The Liver Largest internal organ Central to the body’s functioning Performs many functionsFilters out and eliminates toxinsConverts nutrients into substances that can be used by the bodyStores vitamins & mineralsRegulates blood clotting, fat & sugar storageHas the ability to heal or regenerate itselfDepending on how bad the damage isWe can not live without our liverScript:The liver is the largest internal organ, right here under the lower right rib (point to rib).The liver is central to the body’s functioning, like the center of a wheel with the spokes going out to all the systems of the body.The liver performs hundreds of functions, but is best known for acting as the body’s filter and warehouse.The liver is the only organ that can regenerate it self.A live donor can give up to ¾ of their liver to a person who needs a liver transplant and the liver will grow back to a full size functioning liver in both the donor and the recipient.We can not live without our liver. You can remove the gall bladder for example, but can not remove the liver. We need the liver to live.
4 Hepatitis means Inflammation of the Liver Major causes of hepatitisInfectionsViruses (A, B & C)Or other infections (Amoebas)Toxic ExposureAlcoholPoisons & ChemicalsSome Prescribed, Over the Counter Medications or Vitamins/SupplementsFatty LiverPoor Diet & ObesityGenetics/ Family HistoryMore than one type of hepatitis at a time= more stress to the liverFatty Liver (Liver Steatosis)
5 Hepatitis C Transmission Hep C is a virusTransmitted through infected Blood → Blood stream of another personPercutaneous (i.e., puncture through the skin)Can live outside of body for 4 days or longerHow do you get it?Sharing Any Injection Equipment (IDU)Poor Infection ControlBlood Transfusions or organ donation before 1992, DialysisMedical procedures in countries with poor infection controlOther Blood exposure: Shared tattoo or piercing equipment, fighting, sex, sharing razors, inter-nasal drug use equipment or pipes, blood brothers/sistersHepatitis C is an RNA virusHepatitis A, B & C are each different viruses, one does not turn into another. They are not stages of one another.
6 Signs & Symptoms of Hepatitis Liver is known as the “Uncomplaining Organ”Much of the liver can be damaged without any symptomsPossible Symptoms are easy to missFlu-like symptomsFever, chills, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches, dehydrationPain or tenderness under lower right ribWeight loss, lack of appetiteExtreme FatigueClassic signs of liver problemsJaundice: Yellowing of the skin pigment & whites of eyesDark urine, light stoolsDistended abdomen – fluid build up in the stomach areaWhat is Jaundice?The liver processes a pigment called bilirubin.When the liver is inflamed, the liver can not process bilirubin properly and it builds up in the blood stream.The body tries to get bilirubin out of the blood stream by depositing it in skin and eyes.Wedro, B. (2012).
7 Hepatitis can lead to Liver Damage Steps of Damage & DiseaseInflammationScarringFibrosisNodulesCirrhosisLiver Failure* Liver Cancer* There is an increased risk for liver cancer when someone has Hep C. It does not always occur.Detailed explanation of the damage:Liver fibrosis refers to the accumulation of tough, fibrous scar tissue in the liver. Formation of scar tissue is a normal bodily response to injury, but in fibrosis this healing process goes awry. When hepatocytes (functional liver cells) are injured due to viral infection, heavy alcohol consumption, toxins, trauma, or other factors, the immune system is activated and the repair process swings into gear. The injury or death (necrosis) of hepatocytes stimulates inflammatory immune cells to release cytokines, growth factors, and other chemicals. These chemical messengers direct support cells in the liver called hepatic stellate cells to activate and produce collagen, glycoproteins (such as fibronectin), proteoglycans, and other substances. These substances are deposited in the liver, causing the build-up of extracellular matrix (nonfunctional connective tissue). At the same time, the process of breaking down or degrading collagen is impaired. In a healthy liver, the synthesis (fibrogenesis) and breakdown (fibrolysis) of matrix tissue are in balance. Fibrosis occurs when excessive scar tissue builds up faster than it can be broken down and removed from the liver/ (Liver damage usually occurs slowly over 20 – 30 years Damage can occur faster if there are stresses to the liver
8 Liver damage can cause… DiabetesLiver CancerHepatic EncephalopathyBuild up of toxins in the brainCan cause confusion, memory fog, mental health issues & comaExtreme FatigueItching, bruising & bleedingFluid retention(Ascites & Edema)Cardiovascular Problems
9 Acute & Chronic Infection Infection lasting longer than 6 monthsAcute1st Six Monthsof InfectionOften no symptomsAbout 15% of people clear Hep C during the acute PhaseTreatment during acute phase is highly effective25% of people who have chronic infection develop liver damageOften no symptoms for 20 – 30 years until liver damage is severeHep C can be treated and curedFirst 6 months of infectionOften no symptomsMay experience flu like symptoms, jaundice or abdominal painApproximately 15% of Adults with a healthy immune system clear HCV during the acute phase (CDC)People with a weak immune system may have a harder time fighting off infectionTreatment during the acute phase is highly effective
10 Map shows were new + tests were reported in a 2 year period. People Newly Reported with Chronic Hepatitis C in New York City, by ZIP Code, 2008 and 2009Map shows were new + tests were reported in a 2 year period.NYC Health DepartmentEstimated up to 150,000 infected with Hep C in NYC
11 High Risk: Should be Tested People who have ever injected ANY drugsBlood transfusion before 1992Veterans, especially VietnamHistory of HomelessnessHistory of IncarcerationHIV+Sex with HCV+ partner (blood exchange)Born in Egypt, Russia, Eastern Europe, China or PakistanOther Blood exposure:Medical procedure in developing countryTattoo or piercing with shared equipmentFighting
12 Hepatitis C Testing: 2 Step Process HCV Anti-body TestTest to see if the virus was ever in the bodyWindow period: 10 weeks – 6 monthsIf anti-body positive = was infected at some time85% chance of being Infected NowConfirmatory Test (HCV PCR)Tests for the actual presence of virus in the body nowWindow period: 3 weeksIf positive = Infected NowIncubation period or “Window Period” for HCV is usually 6-7 weeksAntibodies (Anti HCV) develop in 70-80% by week 12, and 95% by week 24Virus (HCV RNA) is sometimes detected in the blood in as little as 1-3 weeksLiver Enzyme Level TestsIf enzymes are elevated = “red flag” liver is having problemsIf liver enzyme levels are normal: still might be HCV+HCV Anti-body Test: Test for the immune system’s response to the virus ever having been in the bodyHCV infection can be detected by anti-HCV screening tests (enzyme immunoassay) 4–10 weeks after infection. Anti-HCV can be detected in >97% of persons by 6 months after exposure. (CDC)Confirmatory Test (HCV PCR): Determines if the virus is currently in the bodyHCV RNA appears in blood and can be detected as early as 2–3 weeks after infection.Genotype Test: Determines which virus a person hasViral Load Test: Determines how much virus is in the bloodLiver Biopsy: Determines amount of liver damageRemove a piece of the liver tissue for examination under a microscopeDetermines Stage of Liver Disease 0 – 4
13 Hep C can be Treated and Cured! There is medical treatment available for Hep CUp to 80% of people can now be curedCurrent Treatment:Weekly Interferon injections with pills taken dailyChallenging side effectsTreatment preparation and support are very importantFuture Treatment:Treatments are rapidly advancing and pill only regimens are likely to be available in the next few yearsFind Care & Treatment:
14 Hepatitis C & HIV Co-infection 25% HIV+ people are co-infected with hepatitis CHepatitis C is one of the leading causes of death for people with HIVWhen someone has both HIV and hepatitis CProgression to liver disease is more likely and about 3-4 times fasterHaving both conditions makes treatment more complexHIV/HCV co-infected patients do not respond as well to HCV treatmentAdvanced liver disease can make HIV treatment more difficultHepatitis C is more easily transmitted sexually when someone has HIV+Treatment Action Group ~ Viral Hepatitis Project. Guide to Hepatitis C for people living with HIV - Available in English, Spanish and RussianGuide to Hepatitis C for people living with HIV: testing, coinfection, treatment, and support.
15 Hepatitis C Prevention You are Never Immune to Hepatitis CAlways possible to get again!There is No Vaccine to Prevent Hepatitis CPrevention: Behavioral OnlyHarm Reduction & RecoverySafer SexUniversal Precautions and Infection Control in Health Care
16 Basic Liver Health Counseling Messages Get tested! Early detection can save your life!Get into care with an experienced and caring liver medical specialistInform All medical providers of hepatitis statusAvoid alcohol, smoking & toxinsBe Healthy!Eat a nutritious diet, low in fat, salt & sugarDrink waterExerciseSleepReduce stress
17 There Is Hope! Getting tested is easy! Now finger-prick rapid test – results in 20 minsFree testing is availableFree testing can be arranged at your organization.Care & treatment is available and Hep C can be cured!Up to 80% of people can be curedCare & treatment save lives
18 Get Involved www.NYCHepBC.org Find Hep C Testing & Medical Care sites Educate your communitySee latest Policy & Advocacy AlertsJoin a Patient Support GroupJoin the NYC Hep C Task Force‘Like’ NYC Liver Health on Facebook