HEPATITIS B is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). WHAT IS HEPATITIS B DISEASE?
Nausea Lack of appetite Tiredness Muscle, joint, or stomach pain Fever, diarrhea or vomiting Headache Dark urine, light-colored stools Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice). WHAT ARE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HEPATITIS B?
The spread of HBV occurs when blood from an HBV-infected person enters the body of a person who is not infected. Sex Sharing drugs, needles, or "works" when "shooting" drugs. Other types of percutaneous (through the skin) exposures, including tattooing and body piercing when good infection control practices have not been used. HOW DOES HEPATITIS B SPREAD?
Needle sticks or sharps exposures on the job such as medical staff. From an infected mother to her baby during birth. Breastfeeding has not been associated with the spread of HBV. HBV can be spread also by an infected person pre- chewing food for babies, and through contact with HBV from sharing personal-care items, such as razors or toothbrushes. HOW DOES HEPATITIS B SPREAD?
Hepatitis B is very serious. About 9 out of 10 infants (who do not receive appropriate prophylaxis at birth), 30 out of 100 children younger than age 5, and about 2 of 100 adults who are infected with HBV are unable to clear HBV from their bodies and become chronically infected. This serious condition is discussed below. Even though people might eventually recover from their acute infection, a feeling of tiredness and poor health might last for months. HOW SERIOUS IS HEPATITIS B?
Practice safe sex Avoid sharing intravenous drug paraphernalia Immunize at-risk individuals Wear gloves when exposed to blood or body fluids HOW TO PREVENT HEPATITIS B?
Clear up blood or body fluids with warm water and detergent Surgical instruments must be disposable or adequately sterilized Safe handling of sharps If there is risk of infected material splashing into the eye, wear goggles Healthcare workers (who are positive for HBeAg) are not permitted to work in areas where they could be a risk to others HOW TO PREVENT HEPATITIS B?
The hepatitis B vaccine protects against hepatitis B, a serious disease that damages the liver. HEPATITIS B VACCINE
The standard course of immunization involves 3 injections at 0, 1 and 6 months. An accelerated course of 0, 1 and 2 months is possible - also for combined hepatitis A and B vaccines. IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE
Adults who need protection very quickly can have a schedule of 0, 7 and 21 days. The vaccine is administered intramuscularly, usually into the deltoid muscle. After an accelerated course, a booster at 1 year is recommended. IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE