Presentation on theme: "Best Practices for Taxi Operations at Towered & Non-Towered Airports"— Presentation transcript:
1 Best Practices for Taxi Operations at Towered & Non-Towered Airports Section 4Best Practices for Taxi Operations at Towered & Non-Towered Airports
2 Challenges facing Air Crews and Air Traffic Controllers Taxi operations may be difficult and hazardousAircrew workload during taxi has increased
3 Challenges facing Air Crews and Air Traffic Controllers Air traffic volume increases yearlyAir Traffic System is more complexAirport layout design is more complicatedTechnology improvements at airports have not kept pace with demand
4 Taxi Operations at Towered Airports Conduct Pre-Taxi Planning Study airport diagram BEFORE taxiIdentify complex intersections and potential runway crossingsPlan timing of checklists and conduct them while stoppedPlan timing of company communicationsListen to ATISCAUTION: Follow the taxi clearance or instructions that are ACTUALLY received and not those EXPECTED to be received.
5 Write Down Taxi Instructions Copying complex taxi instructions can reduce a pilot’s vulnerability to forgetting.“Cessna 34 Papa Uniform, taxi to Runway 19 right, at Alpha 3 intersection departure, via Taxiway Charlie to Taxiway Alpha, hold short of Runway 19 right.”NOTE: Common sense should be used in determining this need. Don’t be afraid to ask for “progressive taxi directions”
6 Maintain Situational Awareness Be vigilant if instructed to “taxi into position and hold”Be extremely cautious when directed to use a runway as a taxiway
7 Maintain Situational Awareness (con’t) Monitor ATC instructions issuedto other aircraftLOOK before crossing intersectingtaxiways or runways
8 Use extra caution Maintain Situational Awareness (con’t) At Night or in periods of reduced visibility
9 Maintain Situational Awareness (con’t) Know where you are and where you’re goingUse utmost caution when exiting the runway if the exit taxiway intersects with another runway (see next three examples)
10 Note: Because of the relative short Taxiway D stub, the hold markings are not SEQUENCED in the “usual order” as one would expect to see exiting either runway.Following landing, blue aircraft has been instructed to “hold short” Runway 4. Blue aircraft is expected to hold at this position even if the aircraft has not cleared the landing runway and remains inside the safety area for Runway 35. Follow ATC instructions.Runway Safety Area for 35Runway Safety Area for 4D354354D
11 32R 14R 32L Runway Safety Area 14L/32R Runway Safety Area 14R/32L Following landing, the orange aircraft has been instructed to “hold short” Runway 14L. THE ORANGE AIRCRAFT IS EXPECTED TO HOLD AT THIS POSITION EVEN IF IT HAS NOT CLEARED THE LANDING RUNWAY AND REMAINS INSIDE THE SAFETY AREA FOR RUNWAY 14R/32L. (black circle)Runway Safety Area 14R/32L14R32L
12 32R 14R 32L Runway Safety Area 14L/32R Runway Safety Area 14L/32R Following landing the blue aircraft is expected to clear the hold position marking associated with the landing runway (black circle) unless otherwise instructed by ATC. The orange aircraft has been instructed to “hold short” Runway 14L.Runway Safety Area 14L/32R32RRunway Safety Area 14L/32RRunway Safety Area 14R/32L14R32L
13 Coordinate Crew Communications On taxi instructions for takeoffOn identifying runway intersectionsOn identifying the correct departure runwayOn performing other “heads down” cockpit tasks
14 Coordinate Crew Communications On landing and hold short clearanceOn ATC instructions to parkingBefore crossing hold short lines
15 Maintain the “Communication Loop” Maintain a “sterile cockpit”Use standard ATC phraseologyFocus on what ATC is instructingRead back all hold short and runway crossing instructions.NOTE: Air Traffic Controllers are required to obtain from the pilot a readback of all runway hold short instructions
16 THE TWO MOST COMMON PILOT ERRORS RESULT IN RUNWAY INCURSIONS ARE: Taxiing onto the runway after acknowledgingATC “hold short” instructions.Taking off without clearance.
17 As the pilot of either aircraft, what should you be listening for? Aircraft #1 is holding on the runway for an intersection departure runway 14 at taxiway Echo while aircraft #2, is told to “taxi into position and hold”.Potential “TRAPA/C 2As the pilot of either aircraft,what should you be listening for?A/C 1Answer: ATC will soon give takeoff clearance to one of the aircraft holding on the runway. Ensure that clearance is directed to A/C 1.
18 As the pilot of aircraft 2, Aircraft # 1 is landing runway 35L and told to “If able, turn right Taxiway Kilo” while aircraft # 2 is given landing clearance to same runway.As the pilot of aircraft 2,what are you expecting to happen?Answer: As pilot of A/C 2 you are expecting A/C 1 to clear the runway prior to your crossing the runway threshold or ATC to instruct you to “go around”.A/C 2A/C 1
19 Keep “Heads UP” When Taxiing PRIOR TO TAXI, have a copy of and be familiar with the airport diagramUse the compass or heading display to supplement orientationUse all resources during “low” visibility taxiingIf uncertain of position, STOP and advise ATCInform ATC of any delay on runway when crossing or taking off
20 DO NOT exit onto another runway after landing without ATC clearance. CAUTIONDO NOT exit onto another runway after landing without ATC clearance.DO NOT stop on a runway. If possible, taxi off the runway and then initiate communications with ATC to regain your orientation.
21 Recommend Review Advisory Circulars AC and ACThese circulars contain information concerning flight crew procedures during taxi operations.Additional information on this subject can be obtained from the local Flight Standards District Office
22 Use Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) - always! Taxi Operations at NON-TOWERED Airportsor at airports without an operating control towerUse Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) - always!CAUTION: Some aircraft operating at the airport may not be radio equipped.Familiarize yourself with the local traffic pattern. Not all airports use a standard traffic pattern.Be especially alert during calm winds. Aircraft may be utilizing an instrument approach to a runway other than the one in use for VFR operations..Remember to check Airport Facility Directories, NOTAMS, and airport web sites for site specific information.
23 Use CTAF - always! Taxi Operations at NON-TOWERED Airports or at airports without an operating control towerUse CTAF - always!Use extreme caution when operating from a runway where the opposite end of the runway is not visible.CAUTION: Some aircraft operating at the airport may not be radio equipped.
24 Use CTAF - always! Taxi Operations at NON-TOWERED Airports or at airports without an operating control towerBe vigilant if terrain features blocks the view of the approach end of crossing runways.CAUTION: Some aircraft operating at the airport may not be radio equipped.Use CTAF - always!
25 Scan the full length of the runway before crossing Taxi Operations at NON-TOWERED AirportsScan the full length of the runway before crossingMaintain a “Sterile Cockpit”Use CTAF - always!
26 CTAF – Use It! Avoid a Surface Incident At Towered Airports Self Announce Your Position and IntentionsAt Towered Airports(when the tower is not operating)andat Non-Towered AirportsCheck Airport/Facility Directory (AFD) for FrequenciesCTAF this airport: ___________________A Fully Developed Surface Incident = An ACCIDENT!
27 Where is the hold position? Maintain Situational AwarenessHold SignHold LineMonitor the appropriate frequency for other traffic activityMonitor approach control, if possible, to alert you to IFR traffic inboundUse exterior lighting to be more conspicuousWhere is the hold position?
28 Communications at Non-Towered Airports Ensure your radio is tuned to the appropriate CTAF frequencyListen before transmittingAlways state the name of the airport at the beginning and end of the transmissionTransmit intentions clearly but be briefUse your full call sign when broadcasting
29 Recommend Review Advisory Circulars AC 90-42 and AC 90-66 These circulars contain information concerningoperations at airports WITHOUT operating Control Towers.Additional information on this subject can be obtained from the local Flight Standards District Office