Presentation on theme: "FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 Pilot Deviations Including Runway Incursions"— Presentation transcript:
1 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 Pilot Deviations Including Runway Incursions Module 8, Core Topics 15:Pilot Deviations Including Runway Incursions2012/4/ (I) PP CFI Workshop Module 8, Core Topic 15Presentation created by Jason Forshey, GL region FAASTeamNational POC: Jim Leavitt, EA region FAASTeam
2 Are all of your students registered at FAASafety.gov? FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8Module 8 – Core Topic 15Pilot Deviations, Including Runway Incursions:Educate your students to recognize the potential for Pilot Deviations during all Areas of OperationCreate and demonstrate situations that will enable students to experience various types of Pilot Deviations first hand in the training environment.Teach and practice strategies to mitigate Pilot Deviations dependant on distractions and/or cockpit confusion.Are all of your students registered at FAASafety.gov?Pilot deviations are something that we all have faced at one time or another. We get distracted in the cockpit, we put the wrong waypoint into the GPS, we hear ATC instructions incorrectly or maybe we just forgot what that altitude clearance was. Mistakes happen, and while it is impossible for us to prevent all mistakes we can do our best to prevent as many as we can.
3 Definition according to ICAO DefinitionsWhat is a runway incursion?Any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and takeoff of aircraft.Let’s start with some official definitions so we know exactly what we are talking about.Definition according to ICAO3
4 Definition according to Department of Transportation DefinitionsWhat is a pilot deviation?A pilot deviation (PD) is an action of a pilot that violates any Federal Aviation Regulation.Let’s start with some official definitions so we know exactly what we are talking about.Definition according to Department of Transportation4
5 Definition according to Department of Transportation DefinitionsWhat is an Operational Error?An operational error (OE) is an action of an air traffic controller that results in: Less than the required minimum separation between two or more aircraft, or between an aircraft and obstacles (e.g., vehicles, equipment, personnel on runways). An aircraft landing or departing on a runway closed to aircraft.Let’s start with some official definitions so we know exactly what we are talking about.Definition according to Department of Transportation5
6 Definition according to Department of Transportation DefinitionsWhat is a vehicle/pedestrian deviation?A vehicle or pedestrian deviation (V/PD) includes pedestrians, vehicles, or other objects interfering with aircraft operations by entering or moving on the movement area without authorization from air traffic control.Let’s start with some official definitions so we know exactly what we are talking about.Definition according to Department of Transportation6
7 From the Office of Runway Safety, at the address below, this information as well as video’s, animations, along with a host of resources and training aids can be found.
8 From the Office of Runway Safety, at the address below, this information as well as video’s, animations, along with a host of resources and training aids can be found.
9 From the Office of Runway Safety, at the address below, this information as well as video’s, animations, along with a host of resources and training aids can be found.These numbers are accurate as of 02/14/2012
10 Classifications of Runway Incursion Category DLittle or no chance of collision but meets the definition of a runway incursionLet’s break down the classifications of runway incursions and discuss some examples of each type.An aircraft is instructed to hold short of the runway but crosses the hold line by mistake.No other aircraft are in the area.Definitions according to FAA Office of Runway Safety
11 Classifications of Runway Incursion Category CSeparation decreases but there is ample time and distance to avoid a potential collisionLet’s break down the classifications of runway incursions and discuss some examples of each type.A Boeing B737 landed and exited at a high speed taxiway. The B737 pilot wasinstructed to hold short of adjacent runway, and the pilot acknowledged hold short instructions. An AirbusA330 was cleared for takeoff on the adjacent runway full length. The 737 pilots missed the hold line andpulled onto the runway and stopped. The A330 rotated 3600 feet prior to the 737 entry point to the runwayand overflew the 737 by 400 feet. The A330 rotated normally and was not aware of the incursion by theB737.Definitions according to FAA Office of Runway Safety
12 Classifications of Runway Incursion Category BSeparation decreases and there is a significant potential for collisionLet’s break down the classifications of runway incursions and discuss some examples of each type.Local Control (LC) cleared a Diamond DV20 for takeoff. When the DV20 wasrotating, LC observed a Cessna C182 entering the runway without authorization approximately 1050 feetdown field from where the DV20 rotated. The DV20 over flew the C182 by 150 feet, the closest proximityreported.Definitions according to FAA Office of Runway Safety
13 Classifications of Runway Incursion Category ASeparation decreases and participants take extreme action to narrowly avoid a collision, or the event results in a collisionLet’s break down the classifications of runway incursions and discuss some examples of each type.An air traffic controller cleared an aircraft for takeoff, mistakenly believing that anaircraft that had previously landed had exited and cleared the runway. During takeoff roll, the aircraft heardthe previous aircraft notify the ATCT that they were still on the runway. The aircraft aborted takeoff and hasto swerve to one side of the runway to miss hitting the aircraft by 10 feet.Definitions according to FAA Office of Runway Safety
14 Classifications of Runway Incursion Category EDoes not fit into any other categoryLet’s break down the classifications of runway incursions and discuss some examples of each type.An aircraft reports a pedestrian on the runway on takeoff. Estimates of the closestproximity from the pilot and pedestrian differ significantly and there is no way to confirm which is correct, asthe incident occurred at night and was not observable from the ATCT.Definitions according to FAA Office of Runway Safety
15 Airports are getting more and more crowded Airports are getting more and more crowded. More airplanes, more operations, more potential for a mishap to occur. Things get more complicated when you mix aircraft of different sizes, types and mission.
16 Any type of error, deviation, incursion, or mishap can happen to even the most skilled and proficient of us! These things occur because we don’t see it coming otherwise we’d take the action necessary to avoid the event.
17 Do you educate your students as to the meaning of taxiway location signs? Of course, you do and you train and test your students to assure their understanding. Do you teach them about distractions that may cause them to ignore or not respond to the information provided by airport surface signage?
18 We’ve all seen photos of such examples We’ve all seen photos of such examples. And, we truly think that this is an example of that “someone else” we’re always speaking about. The pilot of this aircraft most likely had the same thoughts prior to the time this picture was taken. And, if you are thinking that this doesn’t count because it is not a US registered aircraft you are fooling yourself.
19 Pilots and aircraft operators should be constantly aware that during certain low visibility conditions the movement of aircraft and vehicles on airports may not be visible to the tower controller. This may prevent visual confirmation of an aircraft’s adherence to taxi instructions.
20 The most attentive attendee in front of you right now will be thinking: “Yes, but I don’t fly an aircraft like either of those!” Of, course forward visibility is restricted from the cockpit of a heavy military conventional gear aircraft, too bad but it doesn’t apply to me. So ….. I’ll think about something else until the next slide.
22 Think about this picture. Classic isn’t it Think about this picture. Classic isn’t it? Do you think the pilot of the Cessna can see the Bonanza? If the pilot in the Beech is alone do you think he knows that the Cessna is there? Well again, it’s someone else ……. Right? Do your students think that way, maybe you should find out?
23 What can you do to reduce runway incursions? Plan your surface operationsEmploy cockpit disciplineUnderstand taxi proceduresMake proper use of aircraft lightsUse proper communication techniquesUnderstand/recognize airport signs and markingsSTAY ALERT – Look both ways prior to crossing any runways!The first two subjects – Planning your operations on the surface and Employing Cockpit Discipline will help you maintain situational awareness. Loss of SA happens to pilots, controllers and drivers – and is a major factor in many if not most runway incursions.Understanding signs and markings is also a key in maintaining situational awareness.When you examine many of the most serious runway incursions, you will find two things:1. If someone had looked both ways before entering the runway – they might have seen the runway was occupied and preventing the incursion.2. Sometimes – someone does look and takes evasive action based on seeing what could happen and saves the day!
24 Planning Surface Operations Pre plan taxi routes at departure and destination airportsEnsure you have an accurate, up to date airport diagram availableReview NOTAM’s and ATIS for possible construction impacts – rwy/twy closuresLook for “hot spots”Jeppesen airport diagrams – FAA chartsAirport Diagrams are now available for all towered airports online, free of charge from FAAChecking NOTAMs and ATIS for changes to the airport environment is very important. The number of runway incursions tend to go up when taxi routes have changed temporarily.A hot spot is defined as an area on an airport where the risk of a runway incursion or incident is high. Jeppesen has charted hot spots for years and Runway Safety has produced many hot spot brochures over the years.The hot spot will be marked with a red circle – and a notation like HOT 1 – and there will be text accompanying it giving pilots warning information.
25 Verify Compass heading to confirm proper runway taxiway selection. Who wouldn’t do that? What a waste of time, to tell anyone to “Verify Compass heading to confirm proper runway taxiway selection”. Could an accident really happen because a pilot didn’t verify and use the assigned runway?Preliminary flight data from Comair Flight 5191's black box recorders and the damage at the scene indicate the plane, a CRJ-100 regional jet, took off from the shortest runway at Lexington's Blue Grass Airport, National Transportation Safety Board member Debbie Hersman.
26 Cockpit Discipline Minimize distractions during critical phases Taxi for takeoff is where majority of RIs occurDelay checklists and “cleanup” until off the runwayRecognize when you need to have “heads up”Any time the plane is moving but…Especially when approaching a runway or an intersecting taxiwayWrite down taxi routes and clearancesFrom RIIEP – 72% of pilots who had incursion DID NOTUse the airport diagram during taxiFrom RIIEP – 47% of pilots who had Rwy inc DID NOTVerbalize critical instructions to other crew membersHold Short or Crossing instructionsDISTRACTIONS are a major factor – you need to be paying attention when taxiing the aircraftThe majority of incursions happen during taxi out for takeoffHeads UP: Some air carriers are now color coding taxi charts to tell the crew where it is less risky to have heads down programming the FMS, etc. Difficult intersections may be coded red..RIIEP: Runway Incursion Incident Evaluation Program – this program, now defunct, had pilots who caused an incursion fill out a questionnaire about what happened. The percentage shown are from the 2007 results and meanOf pilots that had an incursion and participated in the program72 percent of those pilots did not write down taxi routes and clearances47 percent did not use the airport diagram during taxi
27 Pilot Deviations What’s the Problem? The airspace is becoming increasingly more complex and congested. As a result there are more opportunities for Deviations and Incursions. New pilots must be made aware of this and experienced pilots must be kept up to date as to the changes and increased risks. Distraction or being unaware can be deadly, it is not necessarily a lack of knowledge, more often it’s a lack of the application of knowledge that causes Pilot Deviations. The knowledge must include that of risk mitigation as well as the rules and procedures. That’s the complete package we must deliver to our students.
28 Check your student’s knowledge of operational requirements of the various airspaces. Do not assume that more experienced pilots have the knowledge and understanding needed to operate safely. You might create an example by asking some airspace questions during flight training at a point when it might be DISTRACTING.
29 TFR – Temporary Flight Restriction SFRA – Special Flight Rules Area MOA – Military Operations AreaADIZ – Air Defense Identification ZoneProhibited – From the surface to defined limitAlert – Informs of a high volume of aerial activityWarning – Areas 3 NM beyond the US coast, possible hazardous activityMany opportunities for Pilot Deviations in and around Special Use and Restricted Airspace due to a lack of knowledge or awareness. The DC SFRA is a perfect example, who doesn’t know that it exists? But, the airspace continues to be violated.
30 Other Possible Deviations AltitudeHeadingCourseSpeedCrossing restrictionsAirspace deviations are indeed a major problem, but they are not the only kind of deviation a pilot can run into.
31 Helpful Tips Watch where you are going! Pay attention! When in doubt, ask for help!Don’t rushDon’t cut cornersUse the checklistKeep maps, diagrams and flight plans availableUse remindersLet’s talk about some tips and tricks that pilots can use to prevent deviations and runway incursions from happening. Does anyone have any suggestions or tricks that have been useful for them?
32 SITUATIONAL AWARENESS WILL SAVE YOUR LIFE! Situational awareness, Single Pilot Resource Management (SRM), knowledge, and common sense will all serve the G/A pilot well. How do we teach these important elements? We can share knowledge and procedures, can we teach Situational Awareness and common sense? That is the challenge we face in our attempt to mitigate the danger of Pilot Deviations.
33 FAASTeam CFI Workshop 8 Questions? Comments? Ideas? Quiz time ~ Module 8, Core Topic #15Questions?Comments?Ideas?Quiz time ~
34 1. The before take-off checklist should be completed while taxing. a. Trueb. False2. At a Towered airport, if you are unsure of where to taxi after landing, you shoulda. Consult your taxi chartb. Ask ATCc. Ask you co-pilot or passengerd. Taxi around until you find your destination on the airport.
35 3. Should the pilot read-back “all” takeoff and landing clearances, including the runway designator??a. Yesb. No4. Only “read-back” an ATC clearance when on an “IFR” flight plan.a. Trueb. False
36 5. Which of the following areas are major contributors to Pilot Deviations in general? a. Communicationsb. Airport Knowledgec. Cockpit procedures for maintaining orientationd. Distractione. All of the aboveAnswers Follow –
37 1. The before take-off checklist should be completed while taxing. a. Trueb. Falseb. False - Airplane Flying Handbook2. At a Towered airport, if you are unsure of where to taxi after landing, you shoulda. Consult your taxi chartb. Ask ATCc. Ask you co-pilot or passengerd. Taxi around until you find your destination on the airport.b. Ask ATC - Airplane Flying Handbook
38 3. Should the pilot read-back “all” takeoff and landing clearances, including the runway designator??“YES” – FAA, Office of Runway Safety.4. Only “read-back” an ATC clearance when on an “IFR” flight plan. True or False?“False’ – AIM, Section 5 and Airplane Flying Handbook
39 5. Which of the following areas are major contributors to Pilot Deviations in general? a. Communicationsb. Airport Knowledgec. Cockpit procedures for maintaining orientationd. Distractione. All of the abovee. All of the above - Airplane Flying Handbook (FAA-H A) page 1-5
40 This Completes CFI Workshop Module 8 The Second CFI Workshop Series ANDThe Second CFI Workshop SeriesCONGRATULATIONS!