3 This Chapter contains A basic computer: 1. The set of registers and their functions;2. The sequence of microoperations;3. The control that initiates the sequence of microoperations
4 Register Transfer Data can move from register to register. Digital logic used to process datafor example:C A + BRegister ARegister BRegister CDigital LogicCircuits
5 Building a ComputerNeeds:processingstoragecommunication5
6 Multiplexer-Based Transfer for TWO 4-bit registers 1Use of Multiplexers to Select between Two Registers6
7 Bus Transfer For register R0 to R3 in a 4 bit system 4-linecommonbusS1S0Register DRegister CRegister BRegister AUsed for lowest bitUsed for highest bit from each register
8 Question For register R0 to R63 in a 16 bit system: What is the MUX size we use?How many MUX we need?How many select bit?
9 Three-State Bus Buffers A bus system can be constructed with three-state gates instead of multiplexersTri-State : 0, 1, High-impedance(Open circuit)BufferA device designed to be inserted between other devices to match impedance, to prevent mixed interactions, and to supply additional drive or relay capability
10 Tri-state buffer gate Tri-state buffer gate : Fig. 4-4 When control input =1 : The output is enabled(output Y = input A)When control input =0 : The output is disabled(output Y = high-impedance)Normal input AIf C=1, Output Y = AIf C=0, Output = High-impedanceControl input C
11 The construction of a bus system with tri-state buffer D0Select inputEnable input
12 Memory TransferThe transfer of information from a memory word to the outside environment is called a read operationThe transfer of new information to be stored into the memory is called a write operation
13 Memory Read and Write AR: address register DR: data register Read: DR M[AR]Write: M[AR] R1
14 Arithmetic Microoperations Symbolic designation DescriptionR3 ← R1 + R Contents of R1 plus R2 transferred to R3 R3 ← R1 – R Contents of R1 minus R2 transferred to R3 R2 ← R Complement the contents of R2 (1’s complement) R2 ← R ’s Complement the contents of R2 (negate) R3 ← R1 + R R1 plus the 2’s complement of R2 (subtract) R1 ← R Increment the contents of R1 by one R1 ← R1 – Decrement the contents of R1 by oneMultiplication and division are not basic arithmetic operationsMultiplication : R0 = R1 * R2Division : R0 = R1 / R2
15 Arithmetic Microoperations A single circuit does both arithmetic addition and subtraction depending on control signals.• Arithmetic addition:R3 R1 + R2 (Here + is not logical OR. It denotes addition)
16 Arithmetic Microoperations Arithmetic subtraction:R3 R1 + R2 + 1where R2 is the 1’s complement of R2.Adding 1 to the one’s complement is equivalent to taking the 2’s complement of R2 and adding it to R1.
17 BINARY ADDERBinary adder is constructed with full-adder circuits connected in cascade.
18 BINARY ADDER-SUBTRACTOR • The addition and subtraction operations cane be combined into one common circuit by including an exclusive-OR gate with each full-adder.XORM b
19 BINARY ADDER-SUBTRACTOR • M = 0: Note that B XOR 0 = B. This is exactly the same as the binary adder with carry in C0 = 0.M = 1: Note that B XOR 1 = B (flip all B bits). The outputs of the XOR gates are thus the 1’s complement of B.M = 1 also provides a carry in 1. The entire operation is: A + B + 1.
21 4-bit Binary Incrementer Adds one to a number in a registerSequential circuit implementation using binary counterCombinational circuit implementation using Half AdderThe least significant HA bit is connected to logic-1The output carry from one HA is connected to the input of the next-higher-order HA
22 4-bit Binary Incrementer B B B BAlways added to 1C4S S S S0