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Sex, Menopause, and Aging

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Presentation on theme: "Sex, Menopause, and Aging"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sex, Menopause, and Aging

2 Overview The menopause transition
Sexual changes during and after menopause Early menopause Hormone replacement therapy Aging and sexuality in men and women The “andropause” - male menopause?

3 Menopause Ovaries become less responsive to FSH and LH
Patterns of GnRH release from the hypothalamus become altered Pituitary gland becomes less responsive to GnRH

4 Perimenopause Average age at onset in the late 40’s
Irregular menstrual cycles Somatic and psychological symptoms emerge

5 Post-menopause 12 months of amenorrhea Elevated FSH levels
On average, reached by the early 50’s

6 No! The ovaries continue to produce androgens after menopause!
Is that all? No! The ovaries continue to produce androgens after menopause!

7 Factors that may affect timing of menopause
Smoking Genetics Number of pregnancies Body mass

8 Symptoms of menopause Hot flashes Mood swings Vaginal dryness
Vaginal atrophy Fatigue, weight gain, sleep disorders, headache, cognitive changes…..

9 Menopause across cultures
Do all women experience menopause as a major negative life event?

“Study after study documents the astonishing effects that estrogen makes women not only feel better but healthier. Estrogen vastly improves the quality of day-to-day life for women by making them more youthful, energized, and healthier.”

11 Sexual changes at menopause
Decreased sexual desire Lower levels of vaginal lubrication More painful sexual intercourse What doesn’t change?

12 Early menopause Surgical menopause
Removal of the ovaries, usually accompanied by hysterectomy Menopause induced by treatment for cancer Radiation therapy Chemotherapy Early natural menopause

13 Early natural menopause
Autoimmune disorders Genetics Problems in ovarian development Chromosomal irregularity Triple X syndrome Faulty second X chromosome

14 Hormone replacement Estrogen: systemic or local
Estrogen + progesterone Androgen replacement? Potential benefits Possible side effects

15 Aging and sexuality How do you tell what is caused by menopause and what is caused by natural aging? A recent longitudinal study concluded that sexual arousal and orgasm are affected by both aging and menopause

16 Sexuality in the elderly
Healthy sexual relationships may continue into old age Common problems associated with aging include: Sexual dysfunction Death of partner Cultural attitudes towards sexuality Health problems

17 The “andropause” Progressive decline of androgens over time
Symptoms: erectile dysfunction, cognitive impairment, fatigue, vague somatic symptoms 40% of men have ED by age 40 Over two-thirds of men by age 70 Is the andropause a disorder?

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