Presentation on theme: "Reading Comprehension Skills"— Presentation transcript:
1 Reading Comprehension Skills Session No 2Reading Comprehension Skills
2 ReadingReading is a complex task which involves both decoding and comprehending the textGood readers are able to do both of these without much thought or effort, and they use strategies to help them.
3 Reading Comprehension Reading comprehension refers to the ability to understand information presented in written form.
4 Types of ReadingSkimmingScanningExtensive ReadingIntensive Reading
5 What is skimming?A method of rapidly moving eyes over the text to cover a vast amount of material very rapidly.
6 Why skimming? Prereading Reviewing Reading for gist Reading for main idea
7 How to skim? Read the title Read the introductory/leading paragraph Read the first paragraph completelySub-headings (relationships among them)Read the first sentence of remaining paragraphsClue words (wh- words)Unusual wordsEnumerationsQualifying adjectives (best,worst,most)Typographical cues (italics,boldface,underlining)Read the final paragraph completely
8 What is scanning?A method to locate a specific fact or piece of information in a text.
9 Why Scanning?We scan for finding a specificnameDateStatisticsfact
10 How to scan??? Keep in mind what you are searching for Anticipate the form of information (numbers, proper nouns)Analyze the organization of the contentIf the material is lengthy, skim to determine the part of the article to scanOn finding relevant information, read the entire sentence.
11 Importance of Reading Comprehension Skills for Academic and Professional success
12 Two Types of Reading Comprehensions AbstractConcreteKnowing vocabularymain ideafact or opinionsequencingfollowing directionsreading for detailsIt requires ability to answer questions when the information being asked is explicitly stated in the reading selection.Drawing inferenceMaking analysisInvolves text evaluationdrawing conclusionsStudying cause and effectIt requires the reader to draw on prior knowledge and processing to identify what is not explicitly stated.
14 Reasons for Lack of Reading Comprehension Failure to understand a wordFailure to understand a sentenceFailure to understand how sentences relate to one anotherFailure to understand how the information fits together in a meaningful way (organization)Lack of interest or concentrationFailure to retain information for a long time
16 Making ConnectionsMaking connections helps facilitate learning and increase retentionIt also enables the reader to make inferences by using their background information to see patterns and make educated guesses about the textIt is helpful for a reader to track his or her thoughts while readings.
17 Text-to-Self Text-to-Text Text-to-World There are three common connections readers makeText-to-SelfText-to-TextText-to-WorldStudents need to practice using connectors (ex: “This part reminds me of…” or “If that happened to me I would…”
18 Common Comprehension Strategies These are some main strategies readers should use to improve their comprehension:PredictingClarifyingMaking InferencesSummarizingQuestioningVisualizingSelf-Monitoring
20 How to Improve Concentration during Reading Use index cards, pencil, or fingerEliminate DistractionsFix a time for reading every dayBe task oriented (Give your mind a purpose to read)Read for short intervalsTake notes while reading60 second synopsis strategy
21 How to Increase Reading Rate It takes conscious effort to improve reading rate fluency. One must become cognizant of the habits that reduce the rate of reading and then take steps to eliminate those habit.
22 Measuring Reading Rate To measure one's reading rate, locate appropriate reading materials and select a section of text. Mark the beginning of the selection. Read for a certain length of time (use a timer or watch) or for a certain amount of text. Mark the end of the selection, and note the total number of minutes spent reading.Document the level of comprehension by recalling main ideas from the selection. If one reads for three minutes, one should remember three main points. If one reads for five minutes, one should remember five main ideas. Jot down these main points.Count the number of words between the two marks, and divide that number by the number of minutes spent reading. This is the rate of reading, expressed in words per minute (WPM).
23 Increasing Reading Rate Set a target reading rate at a level slightly higher than the initial reading rate.Use reading materials that are easy and interesting.Practice at least 15 minutes each day at the "pushed" rate.Increase the target rate by small increments as reading improves.Progress may be charted on a daily grid that plots rate (WPM) and time on the axes.Document progress for at least two weeks.Move your eyes faster over the text.Instead of taking in three words per fixation, take in six words.Follow the lines with your finger, pen, pencil, or a 3 x 5 index card as you read.Reduce regressions by raising awareness of them and by improving concentration.
24 TWO GOOD READING STRATEGIES 1. SQ3R2. Collaborative reading
25 A Good Strategy for Better Reading SQ3RSurveyQuestionReadReciteReview
26 Survey Before you read, Survey the chapter: the title, headings, and subheadingscaptions under pictures, charts, graphs or mapsreview questionsintroductory and concluding paragraphssummary
27 Question Question while you are surveying: Turn the title, headings, and/or subheadings into questionsAsk yourself, "What do I already know about this subject?““How can I use this information?”“What is new for me in this text?”
28 Read When you begin to Read: Look for answers to the questions you first raisedAnswer questions at the beginning or end of chapters or study guidesReread captions under pictures, graphs, etc.Note all the underlined, italicized, bold printed words or phrasesStop and reread parts which are not clear
29 Recite Recite after you have read a section: Orally ask yourself questions about what you have just read, or summarize, in your own words, what you readTake notes from the text but write the information in your own wordsUnderline or highlight important points you've just read
30 ReviewAfter you have read and recited the entire chapter, write questions in the margins for those points you have highlighted or underlined.Orally recite or write the answers from memory.Try to discuss the findings with colleagues
31 Collaborative Reading Read the given text in group.Member “A” will be responsible for explaining vocabularyMember “B” will read the text loud and will explain it to the rest of the membersMember “C” will make 5 questions based on the information given in the textGive a poster presentation based on your comprehension of the text.
32 Writing processMake Time line to ensure that you are following the writing process