1 Mental Health and Illness Overview of Approaches, Definitions, Perspectives Mr. Dan King MA, M.Ed., Escalon High School Health Education
2 Continuous or discrete? Continuous model: Mental Health Mental Illness +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Healthy>>>>Adjustment reaction>>>>Neurosis>>>>Psychosis We all have differing degrees of mental health at different times in our lives. Most people aren ’ t at the extremes but fall somewhere in the middle. Anyone can become mentally ill, given the right circumstances.
Defining Mental Illness Clinical definition : Clinically significant behavioral problems Associated with distress (painful symptoms) Causes disability (impairment in functioning) A biological illness that responds to treatment Not to be confused with weakness of character
6 What is mental health? In our society, a mentally healthy person: Has self-esteem, self-acceptance Is realizing potential Is able to maintain fulfilling relationships Has a sense of psychological well-being Has sense of autonomy Has sense of competence, mastery, purpose However, other cultures may have different ideas about what mental health is.
Facts about Mental Illness Has nothing to do with intelligence Can happen to anyone Chronic but not contagious Difficult to diagnose and to treat Treated but not cured Mentally ill are not all dangerous Should not be confused with terms psychopath or sociopath
Schizophrenia Symptoms Brain disease Includes psychosis Impacts 1 out of every 100 people. Does not differentiate across SES Onset is late teens, early adulthood. Positive Symptoms include : – hallucinations – delusional thinking Negative symptoms include – apathy – withdrawal.
Mood Disorders Major Depression Symptoms Affects 5 percent of the general population Sad mood that lasts 2 weeks Loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities Changes in sleep, appetite, decreased energy Thought problems affect concentration, memory, decisions, feelings of guilt, worthlessness Risk of suicide is high Important to differentiate mental health from physical problems Responds well to treatment
Mood Disorders Major Depression Loss of interest in food and self care May not care about legal situation Suicide risk is real and must be monitored Risk of suicide may increase after medication
Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorders Symptoms Prevalence is 1 to 2 percent of the population; Women twice as high as men. Panic attacks occur without warning Symptoms include intense fear, heart palpitations,chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness Person is concerned that the attacks will strike again
Anxiety Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms Obsessions are recurrent thoughts, images, impulses that cause anxiety. They are illogical,at times repulsive and/or center on violence or harm. Compulsions are behaviors that are repetitive - attempts at reducing the anxiety created by the obsessions.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Exposure to an extremely stressful event. Painful memories, nightmares,, suspicion, anxiety, depression, feelings of guilt and sleep difficulties Symptoms worsen with exposure to similar events Substance abuse is a common method to cope Symptoms in Jail Jail environment can trigger symptoms Jail inmates and personnel can trigger symptoms Lack of privacy and loss of control are issues
Personality Disorders Inflexible, maladaptive, ways of coping and relating Difficulty in holding steady work and relationships Difficult to change Can co -exist with other mental illnesses Behavior problems precipitate jail Antisocial Narcissistic Borderline Avoidant Paranoid Dependent Schizotypal Schizoid