Presentation on theme: "Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I."— Presentation transcript:
Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I
NOUN PHRASE A Noun Phrase is composed potentially of three parts: – the central part (HEAD) (i.e. WHAT we are talking aboutgenerally realised by a noun or a pronoun (he, one, someone…) – other elements (optionally occurring) which add further information about the head itself: pre-modification post-modification
Premodification PREMODIFICATION > The premodification system in English is made up of two important parts: – determiners – modifiers
DETERMINERS Determiners play a key role in the noun phrase by defining its status in terms of: – context (generic/specific) and grammar nature (mass/count) > articles: a/an; the; Ø – position (in time, space, possess/relationship) > this/that; my book/our University; Toms cat/the moons orbit – quantity > distributives (each, every), partitives (some, any), numerals (two, the second), quantifiers (many, a lot of, …)
MODIFIERS Modifiers are adjectives, nouns or verb forms whose function is to provide further information about the thing expressed by the head of the noun phrase: THOSE TWO LOVELY TALL SAILING SHIPS AT SEA
Structure Premodification Head Postmodifica tion DeterminersModifiersQualifiers THOSE TWOLOVELY TALL SAILINGSHIPSAT SEA
MODIFIERS can be further subdivided according to their function as: 1) EPITHETS (ADJECTIVES OF QUALITY) -refer to objective QUALITIES (FACTS) > TALL -refer to subjective QUALITIES (OPINIONS) > LOVELY 2) CLASSIFIERS > indicate a subclass > (SAILING)
Epiteths Subjective and objective epiteths cannot always be easily distinguished (as in the case of TALL and LOVELY): a provincial city (Objective) a provincial attitude (Subjective) pure wool (Objective) pure chance (Subjective)
CLASSIFIERS Rather than describing a noun through its qualities, classifiers identify a subclass (SAILING SHIP) Classifiers are not only adjectives but also nouns, participles, compounds: - orange tree, sun-and-beach tourism, farmyard animals; - fishing rod, hunting dog - Public Health Service contributions
Some times the same word is used as adjective (epiteth) or classifier: a criminal act / the criminal law
To sum up Modifiers are mainly -Adjectives -Participles -Nouns
Adjectives: - a long wide beach - a picturesque coastline - a perfect seaside holiday
Participles -shelving sands -uncrowded street -an interesting book
Nouns -a history book -a perfect seaside holiday -that wonderful orange tree
Focus on NOUN MODIFIERS LEFT-BRANCH DEPENDENCY / BRACKETING newspaper advertisment agency employees present Government private education policy trainee tour operator sales staff
left-branch dependency The relationship between noun classifiers in a noun phrase is one of dependency/subordination moving from the general to the particular from the right to the left left- branch dependency): newspaper (4) advertisment (3) agency (2) employees (1) Employees = [(agency) employees] Agency =[(advertisment) agency] Advertisment = [(newspaper) advertisment] [(newspaper) advertisment]agency employees
LEFT-BRANCH DEPENDENCY newspaper (4) advertisment (3) agency (2) employees (1) impiegati di unagenzia per la pubblicità su carta stampata
BRACKETING present Government private education policy (present Government) (private education) policy la politica dellattuale governo in materia di istruzione privata trainee tour operator sales staff trainee [(tour operator) (sales staff )] apprendista addetto alle vendite presso un tour operator
MISSING The Economist 26th December 2002 AFGHANISTAN'S rich cultural heritage, at the crossroads between India, Central Asia, Iran and China, was once reflected in the Kabul museum: Islamic art, Roman bronzes, Alexandrian glass, Chinese lacquerware, Indian ivories and an extensive Buddhist collection. The past decade, however, has been devastating.
As Soviet troops withdrew and the country fell apart, the museum staff packed the collection into crates, the most valuable of which were moved to the presidential palace. In the years that followed, looting fed an active Pakistani underground art dealing network. The Society for the Preservation of Afghanistan's Cultural Heritage (SPACH), a charity financed by European money, installed heavy doors and steel locks, made a proper inventory, and moved part of the remaining collection to the Kabul Hotel.
HOW TO HAVE AN ADVENTURE HOLIDAY IN ONE WEEKEND Tom Templeton The Observer Sunday May 26 th, 2002 Two travel companies are redefining the adventure holiday by squeezing it into a two- or three-day short break. Now 'cash rich, time poor' travellers need take just one day off work to enjoy an off-road Jeep tour of Icelandic volcanoes, two days for a safari in Kenya and they can now fit a Moroccan walking holiday into a long weekend.
Activity specialist Headwater Holidays has brought out a new programme of walking tours to the cities of Europe and North Africa. Selected hotels and specially written guidebooks allow you to choose from walks that take you to historical landmarks, off the beaten track, or help you to shop in 24 cities spread across nine countries. Now instead of meandering through Salzburg, Strasbourg, Siena and Seville you can walk with a purpose. 'In just two nights you will feel like one of the locals,' said a spokeswoman.
Meanwhile, adventure tour operator Explore Worldwide has launched a short-break programme covering destinations as diverse as Moscow and Djibouti on holidays ranging from three to nine nights. Explore Worldwide's managing director, Simon Tobin, explained: 'We have tried to pack as much activity as possible into each trip, to ensure that our customers go home having fully experienced the essence of adventure travel.'
So you can return to work boasting of snow- shoeing, dogsledging, hiking or wolf tracking in any of 32 countries without your colleagues realising you've been away. More information Headwater HolidaysHeadwater Holidays (01606 720033) Explore WorldwideExplore Worldwide (01252 760000)
HOMEWORK LAVIOSA, Linking Wor(l)ds: Chapter 7 JACKSON, Grammar and Vocabulary: pp.42-43; (B5); 3537 (B2); 94-96 (C5.1) Translate text at p.94 A Practical English Grammar: UNIT 1-3 (ARTICLES+NOUNS+ADJECTIVES) + Exercises English Grammar in Use: UNIT 69-79; 94-97
Word Classes LAVIOSA, Linking Wor(l)ds: Chapters 5-6 JACKSON, Grammar and Vocabulary: pp.4-8 (A2); 3537 (B2); 62-73 (C2)
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