Presentation on theme: "STANDARD(S): 11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation. LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT 1.Identify immigrants’ countries."— Presentation transcript:
STANDARD(S): 11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation. LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT 1.Identify immigrants’ countries of origin. 2.Describe the journey immigrants endured and their experiences at United States immigration stations. 3.Examine the causes and effects of the nativists’ anti-immigrant sentiments.
Section 1 The New Immigrants Immigration from Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and Mexico reach a new high in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries. NEXT
Through the “Golden Door” Millions of Immigrants Some immigrants seek better lives; others temporary jobs The New Immigrants 1 SECTION NEXT Continued...
"Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"
SECTION 1: THE NEW IMMIGRANTS Millions of immigrants entered the U.S. in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries Some came to escape difficult conditions, others known as “birds of passage” intended to stay only temporarily to earn money, and then return to their homeland
Through the “Golden Door” The New Immigrants 1 SECTION NEXT Europeans 1870–1920, about 20 million Europeans arrive in U.S. Many flee religious persecution: Jews driven from Russia by pogroms Population growth results in lack of farmland, industrial jobs Reform movements, revolts influence young who seek independent lives Continued...
EUROPEANS Between 1870 and 1920, about 20 million Europeans arrived in the United States Before 1890, most were from western and northern Europe After 1890, most came from southern and eastern Europe All were looking for opportunity
Guide Reading Immigrants from... What reasons did they often have for coming to the U.S.? 1. Southern and Eastern Europe to escape religious persecution; to escape problems caused by overpopulation; to find good farmland and jobs; to lead freer, more independent lives
Chapter 7; Section 1 A – What reasons did people from other parts of the world have for immigrating to the United States? –Immigrants desired to escape conditions such as land shortages, famine and political or religious persecution; the prospect of land, jobs, or higher wages.
Life in the New Land A Difficult Journey Almost all immigrants travel by steamship, most in steerage 1 SECTION NEXT Ellis Island Ellis Island—chief U.S. immigration station, in New York Harbor Immigrants given physical exam by doctor; seriously ill not admitted Inspector checks documents to see if meets legal requirements 1892–1924, about 17 million immigrants processed at Ellis Island Continued...
ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORK Ellis Island was the arrival point for European immigrants They had to pass inspection at the immigration stations Processing took hours, and the sick were sent home
ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORK Immigrants also had to show that they were not criminals, had some money ($25), and were able to work From 1892-1924, 17 million immigrants passed through Ellis Island’s facilities
Guide Reading Immigrants from... Where did they often enter the U.S.? 1. Southern and Eastern Europe Where' Ellis Island
Chinese and Japanese About 300,000 Chinese arrive; earliest one attracted by gold rush - work in railroads, farms, mines, domestic service, business Japanese work on Hawaiian plantations, then go to West Coast - by 1920, more than 200,000 on West Coast 1 SECTION NEXT continued Through the “Golden Door”
JAPANESE In 1884, the Japanese government allowed Hawaiian planters to recruit Japanese workers The U.S. annexation of Hawaii in 1898 increased Japanese immigration to the west coast By 1920, more than 200,000 Japanese lived on the west coast
CHINESE Between 1851 and 1882, about 300,000 Chinese arrived on the West Coast Some were attracted by the Gold Rush, others went to work for the railroads, farmed or worked as domestic servants An anti-Chinese immigration act by Congress curtailed immigration after 1882 Many Chinese men worked for the railroads
Guide Reading Immigrants from... What were some of the countries they came from? 2. Asia Countries China Japan
Guide Reading Immigrants from... What reasons did they often have for coming to the U.S.? 2. Asia to make money; to seek their fortunes; to mine gold; to obtain better paying jobs
FRICTION DEVELOPS Some native born Americans disliked the immigrants unfamiliar customs and languages – friction soon developed
continued Life in the New Land Angel Island Angel Island—immigrant processing station in San Francisco Bay Immigrants endure harsh questioning, long detention for admission 1 SECTION NEXT
ANGEL ISLAND, SAN FRANCISCO Asians, primarily Chinese, arriving on the West Coast gained admission at Angel Island in the San Francisco Bay Processing was much harsher than Ellis Island as immigrants withstood tough questioning and long detentions in filthy conditions
ANGEL ISLAND WAS CONSIDERED MORE HARSH THAN ELLIS ISLAND
Chapter 7; Section 1 B – What difficulties did immigrants face in gaining admission to the United States? –Medical and administrative inspections and, on Angel Island, harsh questioning and detention.
Guide Reading Immigrants from... Where did they often enter the U.S.? 2. Asia Where' Angel Island
continued Life in the New Land 1 SECTION NEXT Cooperation for Survival Immigrants must create new life: find work, home, learn new ways Many seek people who share cultural values, religion, language - ethnic communities form Friction develops between “hyphenated” Americans, native-born
FRICTION DEVELOPS While some immigrants tried to assimilate into American culture, others kept to themselves and created ethnic communities Chinatowns are found in many major cities
Ghetto In the 1920s the Jewish population saw Boyle Heights as the heart of the Jewish community. By 1930 almost 10,000 Jewish families lived in Boyle Heights.
Chapter 7; Section 1 C – How did immigrants deal with challenges they faced? –They helped one another, forming ethnic enclaves, social clubs, and aid societies.
FRICTION DEVELOPS Committed to their own culture, but also trying hard to become Americans, many came to think of themselves as –Italian-Americans, –Polish-Americans, –Chinese-Americans, etc
1 SECTION NEXT continued Through the “Golden Door” The West Indies and Mexico About 260,000 immigrants from West Indies; most seek industrial jobs Mexicans flee political turmoil; after 1910, 700,000 arrive National Reclamation Act creates farmland, draws Mexican farmers
THE WEST INDIES Between 1880 and 1920, about 260,000 immigrants arrived in the eastern and southeastern United States form the West Indies –Jamaica, –Cuba, –Puerto Rico, and –other islands
MEXICO Mexicans, too, immigrated to the U.S. They came to –find work and –flee political turmoil 700,000 Mexicans arrived in the early 20 th century
Guide Reading Immigrants from... What reasons did they often have for coming to the U.S.? 3. Caribbean Islands and Central America to find work; lived in territories taken over by the U,S.; to flee political turmoil
Immigration Restrictions Melting pot—in U.S. people blend by abandoning native culture - immigrants don’t want to give up cultural identity 1 SECTION NEXT Continued...
The American melting pot. –Immigrants become Americanize
Immigration Restrictions The Rise of Nativism Nativism—overt favoritism toward native-born Americans Nativists believe Anglo-Saxons superior to other ethnic groups Some object to immigrants’ religion: many are Catholics, Jews 1897, Congress passes literacy bill for immigrants; Cleveland vetoes - 1917, similar bill passes over Wilson’s veto 1 SECTION NEXT Continued...
IMMIGRANT RESTRICTIONS As immigration increased, so did anti-immigrant feelings among natives Nativism (favoritism toward native-born Americans) led to anti-immigrant organizations and governmental restrictions against immigration Nelson Burroughs was kidnapped by members of the Ku Klux Klan and branded with hot irons in 1924 because he refused to renounce his Catholic vows
continued Immigration Restrictions Anti-Asian Sentiment Nativism finds foothold in labor movement, especially in West - fear Chinese immigrants who work for less Labor groups exert political pressure to restrict Asian immigration 1882, Chinese Exclusion Act bans entry to most Chinese 1 SECTION NEXT
IMMIGRANT RESTRICTIONS In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act which limited Chinese immigration until 1943 Anti-Asian feelings included restaurant boycotts
Guide Reading Immigrants from... Where did they often enter the U.S.? 3. Caribbean Islands and Central America Ellis Island; southeastern U.S.; southwestern U.S.
continued Immigration Restrictions 1 SECTION NEXT The Gentlemen’s Agreement Nativist fears extend to Japanese, most Asians in early 1900s - San Francisco segregates Japanese schoolchildren Gentlemen’s Agreement—Japan limits emigration - in return, U.S. repeals segregation
Japanese Japanese students are not segregated like Chinese studnets.
Guide Reading NATIVE-BORN Spoke English Ancestors from Western Europe Tended to be Caucasian Tended to be Protestant NEW IMMIGRANTS Did not speak English Came from all over the world Many immigrants were Asian Tended to be Catholic or Jewish