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Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Development

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Development

2 Behavior Genetics Behavior Geneticists - Weigh the effects of our environment and heredity The basics Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 from mom/23 from dad) Chromosomes contain DNA Genes are small parts of the DNA Genomes – complete instructions for making an individual (all the genetic material) If specific genes can be identified with disorders, gives a biological understanding

3 Genetics

4 Twin & Adoption Studies
Identical twins don’t just look the same Come from one egg and are “genetically” identical Fraternal twins Come from two eggs Genetically no more similar than ordinary siblings Adoptive Children Resemble biological parent personality (thinking, feeling, acting) Resemble adoptive parent values, attitudes, manners, faith, politics

5 Temperament Studies Temperament Apparent soon after birth
Emotional excitability Apparent soon after birth Tends not to change even into adulthood More heredity here than environment

6 Heritability Heritability Groups
How much the difference between people can be attributed to genes Groups Individual gene differences don’t necessarily explain differences in groups

7 Parents and peers Prenatal (before birth) conditions can affect the child Experience modifies the brain Unused synapses degenerate (impoverished vs enriched environment) Lacking visual experience early, prevents normal usage later even with surgery Parents… Influence manners, political & religious beliefs Not so much influence on personality Peers… Attempt to fit in (conformity) Influence cooperation and interaction

8 Cultural Influences Culture Cultural differences
Behaviors, ideas, values, traditions shared in a group Cultural differences Personal space Expressing feelings PDA Pace of life Educating & rearing children Genes lead to culture change? Nope – culture changes faster than genes

9 Cultural Influence Individualism (Independence) vs Collectivism (Interdependence) US, Canada, Western Europe value the individual & personal achievement Many part of Asia and Africa value interdependence and tradition Cultures may be different but genetic profiles are the same

10 Gender Development Let’s read a book…





















31 Info about the book… When do you think this was published?
Published in 1970 Intended as a satire

32 Gender Development Differences 45 Chromosomes are unisex Biologically
body fat muscle, height, age of puberty life expectancy Psychologically More women diagnosed w/depression More men diagnosed antisocial personality disorder

33 Gender Development Aggression Social Power Social Connectedness
In many cultures & ages, men tend to be more aggressive Social Power Most societies are male dominant Social Connectedness Women tend and befriend Men emphasize freedom and self-reliance Nature of Gender Biological sex determined by 23 pair of chromosomes Mom=X Dad= X or Y XX=Female XY=Male

34 Gender Development Nurture of Gender Gender Roles Gender Identity
Expectation of how men & women should behave Gender Identity One’s sense of being male or female Social Learning Theory Assumes gender behavior is learned (observed & imitated) though reward and punishment like Gender Schema Theory Proposes we learn a cultural “recipe” of how to be male/female and adjust behavior accordingly

35 Got time? “Like a girl” video Videos\P_G Do Things Like A Girl.mp4

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