Presentation on theme: "1st Environmental Influence - Prenatal"— Presentation transcript:
1 1st Environmental Influence - Prenatal One arrangement – two separate placentasOne may have a better placementSeparate placentas can make babies dissimilar in traits such as social competence and self-control
2 1st Environmental Influence - Prenatal Second arrangement – twins share a placenta
3 Environmental Influence Experience affects brain developmentImpoverishedenvironmentRat braincellEnrichedImplications for humans?
4 Benefits of “Handling” Touching and holding results in faster weight gain and neurological development for both babies and animalsExperience produces a bundle of neural connectionsLanguage development is easy really early, almost impossible after adolescence
6 Environmental Influence - Parenting Blame on parents is often overstatedHindsight example in separated twin study – “Why are you so cleanly?”Parents DO matter – evidence is in the extremesParenting amounts to less than 10% of personality differences
7 Environmental Influence - Peers Peer influence is STRONGPreschoolers will eat food around other kids that they will otherwise refuse to eat at homeChildren will adapt accents of peers of accents of their parentsTeens who start smoking typically do so BECAUSE they have friends who model smoking… parental influence is not as important
8 Peer vs. Parent Influence Parents more strongly influence:EducationDisciplineResponsibilityOrderlinessCharitablenessWays of interacting with authority figuresPeers more strongly influence:Learning cooperationFinding popularityInventing styles of peer interactionYoung people find peers more interesting, but look to parents when contemplating their own futures.
9 Environmental Influence Culturethe behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted through generationsNorman understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
10 Environmental Influence Personal Spacethe buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodiesMemesself-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person
11 Culture and SelfIndividualism – giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes.Collectivism – giving priority to goals of one’s group (extended family, work group, etc) and defining one’s identity accordingly.
13 The Nature and Nurture of Gender X Chromosomethe sex chromosome found in both men and womenfemales have two; males have onean X chromosome from each parent produces a female childY Chromosomethe sex chromosome found only in menwhen paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child
14 The Nature and Nurture of Gender Testosteronethe most important of the male sex hormonesboth males and females have itadditional testosterone in males stimulates:growth of male sex organs in the fetusdevelopment of male sex characteristics during pubertyRolea set of expectations (norms) about a social positiondefining how those in the position ought to behave
15 Gender and Social Connection Females are more interdependent than males.Teen girls – more time with friends.Late adolscents – more time social networkingAdults – prefer face-to-face conversation, use conversation to explore relationshipsMales prefer conversation to communicate solutionsStark enough difference to predict gender of author.Evolutionary connection – human evolution based on social connectedness.
16 The Nature and Nurture of Gender Gender Rolea set of expected behaviors for males and femalesGender Identityone’s sense of being male or femaleGender-typingthe acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
17 The Nature and Nurture of Gender Gender and Culture
19 The Nature and Nurture of Gender Social Learning Theorytheory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punishedGender Schema Theorytheory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
20 The Nature and Nurture of Gender Two theories of gender typing