2 There are 2 basic kinds of clauses: Independent ClauseSubordinate (Dependent) Clause
3 Independent ClausesAn Independent Clause has a SUBJECT and VERB and CAN stand by itself as a COMPLETE SENTENCE. These are also known as simple sentences.Ex: The air vibrated.In the morning, he began to play the cello.S VS V
4 Subordinate Clauses (also known as a DEPENDENT Clause) Has a SUBJECT and a VERB but CANNOT stand by itself as a complete sentence because it starts with a SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION.
5 What is a subordinating conjunction? We will refer to them as the“AAAAAWWWWWWUUBBIISS” WordsThe number of letters tells you how many words begin with that letter.A5W6U2B2I2S2For example 5 words begin with the letter A, 6 words begin with the letter W, etc..
6 Subordinating Conjunctions WUBISafteralthoughas ifas long asas thoughwhateverwhen whenever where whereverwhileunlessuntilbecausebeforeifin order thatsinceso that
7 Subordinate Clause Subordinate or Dependent Clause = Subordinating conjunction (AAWWWUUBBIIS word) + S + V.It cannot stand alone.Example: After we had dinner
8 Subordinating ClauseA dependent (subordinate) clause has to be ATTACHED to an independent clause (simple sentence).We will let I = independent clause (simple sentence)We will let D = dependent clause (subordinate clause)
9 Complex SentencesSo the formula for a complex sentence is:D, IorID
10 Complex Sentences Examples: After we ate dinner, we played cards. OR Dependent clause Independent ClauseAfter we ate dinner, we played cards.ORIndependent Clause Dependent ClauseWe played cards after we ate dinner.
11 Practice The football game was exciting. Underline the independent clause once and the subordinate clause twice. Some sentences have no subordinate clauses.The football game was exciting.Everyone stood and cheered as the team left the field.After we won the game, we celebrated by going to eat.We left the restaurant; we paid the bill.
12 Examples of Complex Sentences Since you want to go to the movies, you will have to eat quickly.You will have to live at home until you get a job.Notice: If the dependent clause comes first, then a comma is used to introduce the independent clause.
13 Practice: Use each of the subordinate (dependent) clauses below to write a complete sentence. so that we can go to the storeunless we win the lotteryafter a song is recordeduntil your room is cleanbefore we went homeInsert a comma after the dependent clause if that begins the sentence.
14 Clauses ReviewHow are independent clauses and dependent (subordinate) clauses different?An independent clause (simple sentence) can stand on its own, BUTA subordinate clause needs to be attached to a independent clause; it cannot stand alone.
15 Complex Sentences andClauses Review What do independent clauses and dependent (subordinate) clauses have in common?They each have a SUBJECT and aVERB.SubordinateIndependent
16 Complex Sentence Review How does a complex sentence differ from a compound sentence?A compound sentence has 2 or more independent clauses.A complex sentence includes a subordinating (dependent) clause.