Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Viruses and Bacteria Viruses Bacteria Viruses, Bacteria, and Your Health Table of Contents.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Viruses and Bacteria Viruses Bacteria Viruses, Bacteria, and Your Health Table of Contents."— Presentation transcript:

1 Viruses and Bacteria Viruses Bacteria Viruses, Bacteria, and Your Health Table of Contents

2 Viruses and Bacteria - Viruses What Is a Virus? A virus is a tiny nonliving particle that enters and then reproduces inside a living cell. Virus particles are tiny compared to bacteria.

3 Viruses and Bacteria The Structure of Viruses All viruses have two basic parts: a protein coat that protects the virus and an inner core made of genetic material. Some viruses are surrounded by an outer membrane envelope. - Viruses

4 Viruses and Bacteria How Viruses Multiply Active viruses enter cells and immediately begin to multiply, leading to the quick death of the invaded cells. - Viruses

5 Viruses and Bacteria Diameter The diameter of a circle is a line that passes through the center of the circle and has both of its endpoints on the circle. To find the diameter, draw a line like the one shown below. Then use a metric ruler to measure the length of the line. For example, the diameter of a penny is about 1.9 mm. - Viruses

6 Viruses and Bacteria Diameter Practice Problem Measure the diameter of a quarter. 2.4 cm - Viruses

7 Viruses and Bacteria Diameter Practice Problem Measure the diameter of a CD. 12 cm - Viruses

8 Viruses and Bacteria How Viruses Multiply Hidden viruses hide for a while inside host cells before becoming active. - Viruses

9 Viruses and Bacteria Sequencing As you read, make two flowcharts that show how active and hidden viruses multiply. Put the steps in the process in separate boxes in the flowchart, in the order in which they occur. How Active Viruses Multiply Virus attaches to the surface of a living cell. Virus injects genetic material into cell. Cell produces viral proteins and genetic material. Viruses assemble. Cell bursts, releasing viruses. - Viruses

10 Viruses and Bacteria Sequencing As you read, make two flowcharts that show how active and hidden viruses multiply. Put the steps in the process in separate boxes in the flowchart, in the order in which they occur. How Hidden Viruses Multiply Virus attaches to cell. Virus injects its genetic material. Cell produces viral proteins and genetic material. Viruses are assembled. Cell bursts, releasing viruses. Viruss genetic material becomes part of cells genetic material. - Viruses

11 Viruses and Bacteria End of Section: Viruses

12 Viruses and Bacteria The Bacterial Cell Bacteria are prokaryotes. The genetic material in the cells is not contained in a nucleus. - Bacteria

13 Viruses and Bacteria Population Explosion Suppose a bacterium reproduces by binary fission every 20 minutes. The new cells survive and reproduce at the same rate. This graph shows how the bacterial population would grow from a single bacterium. - Bacteria

14 Viruses and Bacteria Population Explosion Horizontal axis–time (minutes); vertical axis– number of bacterial cells. Reading Graphs: What variable is being plotted on the horizontal axis? What is being plotted on the vertical axis? - Bacteria

15 Viruses and Bacteria Population Explosion 2 cells after 20 minutes; 8 cells after one hour; 64 cells after two hours. Interpreting Data: According to the graph, how many cells are there after 20 minutes? One hour? Two hours? - Bacteria

16 Viruses and Bacteria Population Explosion The number of cells doubles with each division. Drawing Conclusions: Describe the pattern you see in the way the bacterial population increases over two hours. - Bacteria

17 Viruses and Bacteria Population Explosion Not likely. The bacteria will continue to reproduce at this rate only as long as the conditions are favorable. Predicting: Do you think the bacterial population will continue to grow at the same rate? Why or why not? - Bacteria

18 Viruses and Bacteria After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a definition of each Key Term in your own words. Key Terms:Examples: - Bacteria bacteriaIf Leeuwenhoek had owned one of the high-powered microscopes in use today, he would have seen the single-celled organisms known as bacteria in detail. cytoplasmThe region inside the cell membrane, called the cytoplasm, contains a gel-like material. ribosomeLocated in the cytoplasm are tiny structures called ribosomes, chemical factories where proteins are produced. Key Terms:Examples: flagellum respiration binary fission A bacterial cell may also have a flagellum, a long, whiplike structure that helps a cell to move. The process of breaking down food to release its energy is called respiration. Bacteria reproduce by a process called binary fission, in which one cell divides to form two identical cells. asexual reproduction Key Terms:Examples: sexual reproduction conjugation Asexual reproduction is a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent. Sexual reproduction involves two parents who combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents. During a process called conjugation, one bacterium transfers some of its genetic material to another bacterium through a thin, threadlike bridge that joins the two cells. endospore Key Terms:Examples: pasteurization decomposer An endospore is a small, rounded, thick-walled, resting cell that forms inside a bacterial cell. During pasteurization, food is heated to a temperature that is high enough to kill most harmful bacteria without changing the taste of the food. These bacteria, which live in the soil, are decomposersorganisms that break down large chemicals in dead organisms into small chemicals. Building Vocabulary

19 Viruses and Bacteria More on Bacteria Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity about bacteria. - Bacteria

20 Viruses and Bacteria End of Section: Bacteria

21 Viruses and Bacteria - Viruses, Bacteria, and Your Health Common Bacterial Diseases Many bacterial diseases can be cured with antibiotics.

22 Viruses and Bacteria Common Viral Diseases Unlike with bacterial diseases, there are currently no medications that can cure viral infections. - Viruses, Bacteria, and Your Health

23 Viruses and Bacteria Using Prior Knowledge Look at the section headings and visuals to see what this section is about. Then write what you already know about diseases caused by viruses and bacteria in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, write what you learn. What You Know What You Learned 1.You can catch a cold from somebody who has one. 2.Some diseases can be treated with medicines. 1.You can catch diseases through contact with an infected person, a contaminated object, an infected animal, or an environmental source. 2.Antibiotic resistance results when some bacteria are able to survive in the presence of an antibiotic. - Viruses, Bacteria, and Your Health

24 Viruses and Bacteria Links on Infectious Diseases Click the SciLinks button for links on infectious diseases. - Viruses, Bacteria, and Your Health

25 Viruses and Bacteria End of Section: Viruses, Bacteria, and Your Health

26 Viruses and Bacteria Graphic Organizer Nonliving Can be useful Treated with antibiotics

27 Viruses and Bacteria End of Section: Graphic Organizer


Download ppt "Viruses and Bacteria Viruses Bacteria Viruses, Bacteria, and Your Health Table of Contents."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google