4 Sex Biological distinction between females and males. Factors used to determine biological sex:Chromosomes: XX for female; XY for maleGonads: Ovaries for female; testes for maleHormonesInternal sex organsExternal genitalsWhat does it mean if an individual is born intersexed?
5 GenderGender is more fluid—refers to the social and psychological characteristics associated with being male or femaleit represents learned attitudes and behaviors that characterize people as men or women.The nature-nurture debate?The story of David ReimerThe work of Margaret Mead
6 Gender and Socialization The process through which we learn attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors appropriate to the social positions we occupyGender roles: The social norms that dictate what is socially regarded as appropriate female and male behaviorWhen does gender role socialization begin?
7 Gender Roles in the United States Gender-Role SocializationBoys must be masculineActiveAggressiveToughDaringDominantGirls must be feminineSoftEmotionalSweetSubmissive
8 Gender MythsWe tend to associate stereotypically female characteristics with weakness and typically male characteristics with strength.He’s firm, but she’s stubborn.He’s careful about details, but she’s picky.He’s honest, but she’s opinionated.He’s raising good points, but she’s “bitchy.”We tend to see men as strong, not emotional and women as emotional and not strong.Do these stereotypes continue to exist?
9 Gender IdentityGender identity is the psychological state of viewing oneself as a girl or boy, man or woman.Gender dysphoriaTransexualsThe pregnant man?
10 Gender Role IdeologyRefers to beliefs about the proper role relationships between women and men in a given societyWhat is traditional American gender role ideology?
11 Traditional View and Gender Roles Instrumental roles tend to be occupied by men in our society. They must be the provider and protector of the family.Expressive roles in our society tend to be played by women—they provide emotional support to the family, nurturing, etc.Should the man be the boss of the family?
12 Theories of Gender Development Biosocial Theory (sociobiology)Parental investmentcontroversialSocial learning theoryReward and punishmentmodeling
13 Gender and Socialization Agents If sociology takes the stance that gender roles are learned through interaction with the environment, what agents influence the individual to behave masculine or feminine?
14 Gender and Socialization Agents FamilyRace/EthnicityPeersReligionEducationEconomyMass media
15 Gender Stereotypes are expectations about how people will look, act, think, and feel based on their sex.Such expectations can have negative physical and psychological consequences for males and females
16 Consequences of Traditional Female Role Socialization NegativePositiveLess incomeHigher Poverty ratesNegative Body ImageLess Marital SatisfactionLonger life expectancyStronger relationship focusKeeping relationships on trackBonding with children
17 Consequences of Traditional Male Role Socialization NegativePositiveIdentity based on workLimited expression of emotionsFear of intimacyCustody disadvantagesShorter livesFreedom of movementGreater pool of matesNorm of initiating a relationshipHigher income
18 The Problem of SexismSexism is the assertion that one sex is innately inferior to the otherIndividual level: belief that one sex is superior to the otherInstitutional level: policies, procedures, and practices that produce unequal outcomes for men and womenPatriarchy: system of social organization in which men have disproportionate share of powerSexism supports patriarchy by claiming that men are “better” than women and therefore should dominate them.
19 Gender Inequality Around the World “More girls have been killed in then last fifty years, precisely because they were girls, than men were killed in all the battles of the twentieth century” (p. 250)There is no nation where women and men are equals.A History of global patriarchySurvival rates and genderDiscrimination and persecutionSex traffickingViolent and sexual victimizationLiteracy rates
20 Male Domination The Economy-Women in the Workplace The Gender wage gap- Women earn 81 cents on the dollar that men earn even with equal occupation and level of educationFor women of color, earning discrimination is even greaterThe Matrix of Domination- Social forces that contribute to the subordinate status of many women
21 What improvements have been made for the status of women in American society over the last half century?Why?
22 Emergence of a Collective Consciousness Feminism: belief in social, economic, and political equality for womenEarly 19th century feminists won many victories, including 19th Amendment2nd feminism wave emerged in U.S. in 1960sAs women became aware of sexist attitudes and practices, began to challenge male dominance