2 Chapter 2: Gender Introduction Quote: “Newsflash: You’re the boy. I’m the girl. You text me first or we don’t talk today.”Unknown, University NewspaperDiscussion:How does the quote above exemplify traditional gender roles in our society? Can you discuss a situation in your own life where you have either witnessed or been a subject of traditional gender role ideals?
3 Chapter 2: Gender Chapter Outline Terminology of Gender RolesTheories of Gender Role DevelopmentAgents of SocializationGender Roles in Other SocietiesConsequences of Traditional Gender Role SocializationChanging Gender RolesThe Future of Gender Roles
4 Chapter 2: Gender Introduction Food for thought…Caster Semenya won gold in the women’s 800-m race at the World Athletics Championship in 2009, but colleagues questioned if the 18 year old South African was, in fact, a woman.Based on her picture and athletic ability, why would her colleagues think this?
5 Terminology of Gender Roles: Sex The biological distinction between females and males.Intersexed Individuals: Those with mixed or ambiguous genitalsFactors used to determine biological sex:Chromosomes: XX for female; XY for maleGonads: Ovaries for female; testes for maleHormonesInternal sex organsExternal genitals
6 Terminology of Gender Roles: Gender The social construct that refers to the social and psychological characteristics associated with being female or male.Feminine vs. masculineGender differences are a consequence of biological and social factors.Gender IdentityThe psychological state of viewing oneself as a girl or a boy, and later as a man or woman.
7 Terminology of Gender Roles: Gender TransgenderA generic term for a person of one biological sex who displays characteristics of the other sexCross-DresserTranssexualGender RolesSocial norms that specify the socially appropriate behavior for females and males in societySex RolesRoles defined by biological constraints; can be enacted by members of one biological sex only
8 Terminology of Gender Roles: Gender CategoryBiological SexSexual OrientationCross-dresserEitherTransvestiteMaleGayTranssexual
9 Terminology of Gender Roles: Gender Gender Role IdeologyThe proper role relationships between women and men in a societyGender Differences in Viewing Romantic Relationships
10 Terminology of Gender Roles: Gender Food for thought…What would happen if your healthy baby boy’s genitals were damaged right after birth? Watch the Youtube video below about David Reimer.David Reimer: Raised as a Girl (Run Time 10:24)
11 Terminology of Gender Roles: Gender DiscussionUsing the picture to the right, address the following terms with what you believe best defines this person’s:SexGenderGender identityGender RolesGender role ideology
12 Terminology of Gender Roles: Gender The picture in the previous slide was a male in female attire and makeup.Does this change your answers to the terms that we just discussed? If so, how?Terms on the previous slide:SexGenderGender identityGender RolesGender role ideology
13 Theories of Gender Development: Biosocial Sociobiology (Biosocial)Emphasizes that social behavior and gender roles have a biological basis in terms of being functional in human evolution
14 Theories of Gender Development: Social Learning Derived from the school of behavioral psychologyEmphasizes the roles of reward and punishment in explaining how a child learns gender role behavior
15 Theories of Gender Development: Identification Children acquire the characteristics and behaviors of their same-sex parent through a process of identification
16 Theories of Gender Development: Cognitive-Developmental Cognitive-Developmental TheoryReflects a blend of biological and social learning viewsThe biological readiness, in terms of cognitive development, of the child influences how the child responds to gender cues in the environment.
17 Agents of Socialization Sources influencing gender socialization:FamilyRace/EthnicityPeersReligionEducationEconomyMass Media
18 Gender Roles in Other Societies: Latino/Hispanic Families Although traditional family models in Spain call for men as providers and women as homemakers and mothers, a new feminine culture and a social reality is moving steadily toward gender equality and complementariness between genders.
19 Gender Roles in Other Societies: Afghanistan Under the Taliban Afghan women go uneducated, become child brides, produce children, and rarely expect their daughters’ lives to be different.
20 Gender Roles in Other Societies: Caribbean Families Family patterns are often characterized by women and their children as the primary family unit—the fathers of these children rarely live in the home.Men may have children with different women and be psychologically and physically absent from their children’s lives.
21 Gender Roles in Other Societies: East and South Africa Africa is very diverse with Islamic and Arab cultures in the north and industrial and European influences in the south.In eastern African cultures, gender roles can be very different from what Americans are used to.In South Africa, the family has traditional gender role relationships and patriarchy is the norm.
22 Consequences of Traditional Gender Role Socialization: Female Roles
23 Consequences of Traditional Gender Role Socialization: Feminization of Poverty Disproportionate percentage of poverty experienced by women living alone or with their children.Poverty contributes to teen pregnancy, since teens have limited supervision and few alternatives to parenthood.Early childbearing interferes with education and restricts earning capacity.Offspring are born into poverty, and the cycle repeats.
24 Many daughters view it as a rite of passage. Consequences of Traditional Gender Role Socialization: Female Genital AlterationSurgical procedures involving partial or total removal of the external genitalia or other injuries to the female genitalia for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons.Parents believe female circumcision makes their daughters marketable for marriage.Many daughters view it as a rite of passage.
25 Consequences of Traditional Gender Role Socialization: Relationship Choices for Women A woman who is not socialized to pursue an education may feel pressure to stay in an unhappy relationship.Women who are socialized to not initiate relationships are limiting interactions that could develop into valued relationships.Women who are socialized to accept that they are less valuable than men are less likely to achieve egalitarian relationships.
26 Consequences of Traditional Gender Role Socialization: Relationship Choices for Women Women who view their worth in terms of age and appearance are likely to feel bad about themselves as they age.Women who are socialized to accept that they are solely responsible for taking care of their parents, children, and husband are likely to experience role overload.Women who are socialized to emphasize the importance of relationships will seek relationships that are emotionally satisfying.
27 Consequences of Traditional Gender Role Socialization: Male Roles
28 Consequences of Traditional Gender Role Socialization: Relationship Choices for Men Men who are socialized to define themselves in terms of their income leave their self-esteem vulnerable should they become unemployed.Men who are socialized to restrict their expression of emotions are denied the opportunity for interpersonal sharing.Men who are socialized to believe it is not their role to participate in domestic activities will not be competent in these life skills.
29 Consequences of Traditional Gender Role Socialization: Relationship Choices for Men Heterosexual men who focus on cultural definitions of female beauty overlook potential partners.Men who are socialized to view women who initiate relationships negatively are restricted in their relationship opportunities.Men who are socialized to be in control of relationship encounters may alienate their partners, who may desire equal influence in relationships.
30 Changing Gender Roles: Androgyny A blend of traits stereotypically associated with masculinity and femininityPhysiological androgyny refers to intersexed individuals.Behavioral androgyny refers to the blending or reversal of traditional male and female behavior, so a biological male may be gentle and nurturing, and a biological female may be assertive and selfish.
31 Changing Gender Roles: Positive Androgyny Devoid of the negative traits of masculinity:Aggression, hard-heartedness, indifference, selfishness, showing off, vindictivenessDevoid of the negative traits of femininity:Passivity, submissive, temperamental, fragile
32 Changing Gender Roles Gender Role Transcendence Gender Postmodernism Involves abandoning our gender schema so that personality traits, social or occupational roles, and other aspects of our lives become divorced from gender categoriesGender PostmodernismView that abandons the notion that genders are natural and focuses on the social construction of the individual in a gender-fluid society
33 The Future of Gender Roles Ideas about characteristics that are traditionally associated with men (aggressiveness, independence, strength) and women (nurturance, passivity, emotions) are changing.Both sexes are considered equal, and women and men may pursue the same occupational, political, and domestic roles.
34 The Future of Gender Roles Food for thought…Imagine a society in which women and men each develop characteristics, lifestyles, and values that are independent of gender role stereotypes.Is such a society possible? Discuss.
35 Quick QuizWhich of the following refers to the biological distinction between females and males?role characterizationsexgendersexologyANS: B
36 Quick QuizWhich term refers to a blend of traits that is associated with both masculinity and femininity?gender orientationhermaphroditismtransgenderedandrogynyANS: D (Androgyny refers to a blend of traits associated with masculinity and femininity.)
37 Quick QuizWhich theory emphasizes the role of reward and punishment in explaining how a child learns gender role behavior?gender role transcendenceidentificationcognitive-developmental theorysocial learning theoryANS: D (Emphasizes the role of reward and punishment in explaining how a child learns gender role behavior.)
38 Quick QuizThe social norms that dictate what is socially regarded as appropriate female and male behaviors make up one's:gender rolegender identitysex rolesocializationANS: A
39 Quick QuizWhich of the following is not a negative consequence of traditional female role socialization?Less incomeFeminization of povertyLonger lifeNegative body imageANS: C