Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Gender and Sexuality Dr Rhoda Wilkie SO 1004. Week 10: Becoming Gendered (1) some commonsense assumptions some commonsense assumptions sex-gender distinction.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Gender and Sexuality Dr Rhoda Wilkie SO 1004. Week 10: Becoming Gendered (1) some commonsense assumptions some commonsense assumptions sex-gender distinction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender and Sexuality Dr Rhoda Wilkie SO 1004

2 Week 10: Becoming Gendered (1) some commonsense assumptions some commonsense assumptions sex-gender distinction sex-gender distinction gender stereotypes gender stereotypes historical and anthropological evidence? historical and anthropological evidence?

3 Becoming Gendered (2) Becoming Gendered (2) how is gender socially constructed? how is gender socially constructed? gender roles, socialisation process and the role of social institutions (e.g. family & school) summary summary

4 commonsense assumptions … there are only two sex/gender categories there are only two sex/gender categories interchangeable use of terms interchangeable use of terms it is natural: taken-for-granted and it has always been this way? it is natural: taken-for-granted and it has always been this way?

5 two-sex model (Laqueur 1990) e.g. medical anatomical illustrations of reproductive organs shift from one-sex model shift from one-sex model - emphasised similarities mid 18 th century - two-sex model mid 18 th century - two-sex model - emphasised binary differences

6 sex biological distinction between females and males biological distinction between females and males female (XX) and male (XY): female (XX) and male (XY): chromosomes; hormones; reproductive organs; external and internal genitals and secondary sex characteristics - assigned at birth – genitals - fixed

7 gender distinction between sex and gender distinction between sex and gender Ann Oakley (1972) Sex, Gender and Society Ann Oakley (1972) Sex, Gender and Society social, psychological and cultural interpretation of biological sex social, psychological and cultural interpretation of biological sex basis of assigning and classifying behaviours and attributes as masculine and feminine mapped on respectively to male and female?

8 gender stereotypes e.g.: Masculinityassertiverationalstrongactivecompetitiveunemotional(culture)Femininitysubmissiveintuitiveweakpassivecooperativeemotional(nature)

9 gender: power and inequality? not just about differences not just about differences hierarchically organised and valued hierarchically organised and valued e.g. men and masculinity privileged over women and femininity? POWER and INEQUALITY? POWER and INEQUALITY? (patriarchy – discuss further next week)

10 Simone de Beauvoir (1949: 295) One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman feminists challenge the idea that biology is destiny feminists challenge the idea that biology is destiny

11 cross-cultural differences historical and anthropological studies historical and anthropological studies e.g. Margaret Mead (1935) - New Guinea - three societies: Arapesh, Mundugmor and Tchambuli central role of culture central role of culture social change? social change?

12 how is gender socially constructed? socialisation (see Oakley 1972) socialisation (see Oakley 1972) gender roles gender roles lifelong process lifelong process social institutions social institutions e.g. family, school, work and media

13 e.g. family…. primary socialisation primary socialisation parent-child interactions e.g. Adam and Beth parent-child interactions e.g. Adam and Beth gendered childrearing practices gendered childrearing practices gendered task allocation gendered task allocation

14 deviate from culturally-specific gender role expectations? e.g.: girls – tomboys girls – tomboys boys – sissy boys – sissy women – assertive – aggressive? women – assertive – aggressive? men- emotionally expressive? men- emotionally expressive? gender-neutral childrearing? gender-neutral childrearing?

15 e.g. school … secondary socialisation secondary socialisation teacher-pupil interaction and expectations teacher-pupil interaction and expectations reinforce gender-stereotyped roles reinforce gender-stereotyped roles subject - career choices subject - career choices

16 summary … sex (male/female) – biological concept sex (male/female) – biological concept gender (masculinity/femininity) – social and cultural interpretation of biological sex gender (masculinity/femininity) – social and cultural interpretation of biological sex cross-cultural and historical evidence cross-cultural and historical evidence nature v nurture debate nature v nurture debate

17 In other words … born as human beings (males and females) born as human beings (males and females) become gendered social beings - masculinity and femininity become gendered social beings - masculinity and femininity lifelong process of socialisation - learn and acquire socially and culturally appropriate gender roles and gender identities lifelong process of socialisation - learn and acquire socially and culturally appropriate gender roles and gender identities

18 lecture tomorrow … sexual/gender ambiguity – intersex/ transsexuals/ transgender? sexual/gender ambiguity – intersex/ transsexuals/ transgender? are there masculinities and femininities? are there masculinities and femininities? what about agency (choice) – do we play an active part – is gender something we do? what about agency (choice) – do we play an active part – is gender something we do?


Download ppt "Gender and Sexuality Dr Rhoda Wilkie SO 1004. Week 10: Becoming Gendered (1) some commonsense assumptions some commonsense assumptions sex-gender distinction."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google