2Week 10: Becoming Gendered (1) some commonsense assumptionssex-gender distinctiongender stereotypeshistorical and anthropological evidence?
3how is gender socially constructed? Becoming Gendered (2)how is gender socially constructed?gender roles, socialisation process and the role of social institutions (e.g. family & school)summary
4commonsense assumptions … there are only two sex/gender categoriesinterchangeable use of termsit is ‘natural’: taken-for-granted and it has always been this way?
5‘two-sex’ model (Laqueur 1990) e.g. medical anatomical illustrations of reproductive organsshift from ‘one-sex’ model- emphasised similaritiesmid 18th century - ‘two-sex’ model- emphasised binary differences
6‘sex’ biological distinction between females and males female (XX) and male (XY):chromosomes; hormones; reproductive organs; external and internal genitals and secondary sex characteristics- assigned at birth – genitals- fixed
7‘gender’ distinction between ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ Ann Oakley (1972) Sex, Gender and Societysocial, psychological and cultural interpretation of biological sexbasis of assigning and classifying behaviours and attributes as ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’‘mapped on’ respectively to male and female?
9gender: power and inequality? not just about differenceshierarchically organised and valuede.g. men and masculinity privileged over women and femininity?POWER and INEQUALITY?(‘patriarchy’ – discuss further next week)
10‘One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman’ Simone de Beauvoir (1949: 295)‘One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman’feminists challenge the idea that ‘biology is destiny’
11cross-cultural differences historical and anthropological studiese.g. Margaret Mead (1935)- New Guinea- three societies: Arapesh, Mundugmor and Tchambulicentral role of culturesocial change?
12how is gender socially constructed? socialisation (see Oakley 1972)gender roleslifelong processsocial institutionse.g. family, school, work and media
13e.g. family…. primary socialisation parent-child interactions e.g. ‘Adam’ and ‘Beth’gendered childrearing practicesgendered task allocation
14deviate from culturally-specific gender role expectations? e.g.: girls – ‘tomboys’boys – ‘sissy’women – assertive – aggressive?men- emotionally expressive?gender-neutral childrearing?
15e.g. school … secondary socialisation teacher-pupil interaction and expectationsreinforce gender-stereotyped rolessubject - career choices
16summary … ‘sex’ (male/female) – biological concept ‘gender’ (masculinity/femininity) – social and cultural interpretation of biological sexcross-cultural and historical evidencenature v nurture debate
17In other words … born as human beings (males and females) become gendered social beings - masculinity and femininitylifelong process of socialisation - learn and acquire socially and culturally appropriate gender roles and gender identities
18lecture tomorrow …sexual/gender ambiguity – intersex/ transsexuals/ transgender?are there masculinities and femininities?what about agency (choice) – do we play an active part – is gender something we ‘do’?