2 PurposeGoal: To introduce the technical terms related to English grammar in order to develop a metalanguage.
3 Two kinds of sentencesClausal sentence- has the form of a single clause.Kim is an actor.Pat is a teacher.Sam is an architect.2. Compound sentence- has two or more coordinating clauses, joined by a coordinator (and, or, but)Kim is an actor, but Pat is a teacher.Kim is an actor, Pat is a teacher, and Sam is an architect.What’s a clause?
4 Clause, word and phraseA clause consists of a subject and a predicate. The subject (Subj) is a noun and the predicate (Pred) is a verb 1. Things change. Subj pred 2. Kim left. Subj Pred 3. People complained. Subj Pred
5 Clause, word and phrase Where’s the Subject and Predicate? All things change.Kim left early.Some people complained about it.Noun phrase (NP): consists of a noun with or without various dependents, i.e. the head is accompanied by zero or more dependents.Verb phrase (VP): consists of a verb with our without various dependents.
6 Subject and predicate Clauses consists of a subject and predicate. What’s the definition of subject? predicate?The subject indicates a the actor, the person or thing performing the action.The predicate describes the action.Kim left early.The book was stolen. ??
7 It’s easier to distinguish the subject/predicate syntactically For example, a subject usually has the following propertiesIt usually has the form of a NPIts default position is before the verb.In interrogative clauses (yes/no questions) it typically occupies a distinctive position just after the verb.The clock has stopped.Kim is downstairs.Some customers complained.The three properties are considered syntactic tests
8 Two theoretical distinctions Subject is a function, NP is a category What is the function of the underlined? What is the category? Some customers complained Kim insulted some customers.
9 Words and lexemesThey had two cats and a dog; one cat kept attacking the dog.Are cats and cat the same word? Are dog and dog the same word?Cat and cats are different words, but forms of the same lexeme (dictionary entry).The difference between different forms of lexemes is in its inflectional forms.Cat and cats are inflectional forms of the lexeme catTake, takes, took, taking, taken are inflectional forms of the lexeme take
10 Word and lexeme categories: the parts of speech NounVerbAdjectiveDeterminerAdverbPrepositionCoordinatorSubordinatorCan function as the head of a phrase(noun phrase, verb phrase, adjective phrase, etc.)
11 Nouns Nouns make up the largest category Meaning page 16 Inflection: The inflectional forms of most nouns contrast between singular and pluralcat – catsC. Function: Nouns generally function as the head of NPsD. Differences from traditional grammarCommon nouns, proper nouns, and pronouns are all considered nouns.Nps function as the subject
12 Verbs Meaning ? Inflection: Tense (past, present) Present She works in Paris. They work in Paris.PreteriteShe worked in Paris.C. Function: verbs function as head of VPsD. Subclasses: Auxiliary verbs and lexical verbs (ran, walk, dance)VPs function as predicates
13 Lexical (run, sing, dance) VerbsAuxiliaryModal (can, may, must)Non-modal (be, have, do)Lexical (run, sing, dance)Lexical (main verb)Auxiliary are usually followed by another verb
14 Auxiliary verbs have the following properties: 1. They can sometimes precede the subject. This occurs in interrogativesCan you speak French?*Speak you French?2. Auxiliaries are usually followed by another verb.It will rain.They are working in Paris.She has gone home.
15 AdjectivesMeaning ?Function: Most adjectives can function in either two major functions, attributive and predicative:AttributivePredicative1.a. Some hot soup1.b. the soup is hot2.a. a jealous husband2.b. he became jealous.
16 In the attributive use the adjective functions as modifier to a following noun. In the predicative use it generally occurs after the verb be or after copula verbs such as become, feel, seem
17 C. Gradability and inflection Most adjectives are gradable – that is, they denote properties that can be possessed in varying degrees. The degree can indicated by a modifier, as in fairly big, very hot, extremely jealous – and can be questioned by how: How big is it?The degree can be marked with inflection.This inflectional system is called grade: old is the plain form, older the comparative, and oldest the superlativePlainComparativeSuperlativeKim is old.Kim is older than PatKim is the oldest of them all.
18 DeterminativesDefiniteness: The two most common determiners are the and a. They mark the NP as definite in the case of the and indefinite in the case of a.Where’s the dog?I could hear a dog barking.There are other determiners besides the and a:Examples include this, that, some, any, many, few, one, two, three, etc.It isn’t that bad.
19 Adverbs Relation to adjectives The most obvious adverbs are those derived from adjectives by adding -ly:Some adverbs don’t have this form, they include almost, always, not, often, quite, rather, soon, too, and very,ADJECTIVECarefulcertainfortunateobviousADVERBcarefullycertainlyfortunatelyobviously
20 B. Function Adverbs function as modifiers of verbs (or VPs), adjectives, or other modifiers. Modifying a verb or VPShe spoke clearlyI often see themModifying an AdjectiveA remarkably good ideaIt’s very expensiveModifying an adverbShe spoke quite clearlyIt’ll end quite soon.
21 PrepositionsMeaning?Function: Prepositions function as the head of preposition phrases (pp), and PPs function as dependents of VPs, nouns, adjectives…I sat by the door.
22 Coordinators And, or, but Function: Their function is to mark the coordination of two or more expressions.We need a long table and at least eight chairs.
23 Subordinators Function: Some example of subordinators are that, whether, and one use of if – the one used interchangeably with whether.I don’t know whether/if it’s possible.These words serve to mark a clause as subordinateSubordinate clauses are dependent clausesMain clauseSubordinate clauseHe did his bestI realize (that he did his best)
24 The concept of prototype Categories such as nouns, verbs, and adjective have many properties distinguishing them from each other. Some nouns, verbs, and adjectives do not. The word prototypical is used for words of a category that have a full set of properties Cat and dog are prototypical nouns, but equipment is a nonprototypical noun. Go, know, and tell are prototypical verbs, but must is nonprototypical.
25 The structure of phrases page 22, 23 will be explained in chapter 5
26 Canonical and non-canonical clauses Refer to book