Lesson 1 What is Coronary Artery Disease? Coronary Artery Disease also known as Coronary Heart Disease
What is Coronary Artery Disease? According to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Coronary Artery Disease is “a condition in which plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. Coronary arteries supply the heart with blood that is oxygen rich. Figure A shows a normal artery with normal blood flow. Figure B shows an artery with plaque buildup. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Cad/CAD_WhatIs.html
Coronary Artery Disease Cont Reduction in Coronary artery blood flow may result in Ischemia- depriving heart of oxygen Myocardial hibernation- myocardial perfusion is chronically reduced. Infarction- death to tissues Collateral circulation- possible systemic blockage. http://naz-medical-kamptee.over-blog.com/article-28751473.html
How do we develop plaque in our arteries? Plaque consists of fat, cholesterol and calcium. Atherosclerosis is another name for plaque build up in the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by plaque formation. Atherosclerosis cause lipoproteins and fibrous tissue to accumulate in the artery wall. In the blood stream, lipids are transported attached to proteins called apoproteins. High levels of these apoproteins increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis.
Cholesterol Cholesterol is a major component of the plaque that clogs arteries. Desirable levels of total cholesterol levels should be around 200 or less. The optimal level for LDL aka bad cholesterol is less than 100. LDL’s are a major component of the atherosclerotic plaque that builds in the arteries. The optimal level for HDL aka good cholesterol is greater than 40. HDL’s help to carry LDL’s out of the body via liver for excretion.
Risk Factors Non-ModifiableModifiable Age- Over 50 years of age. Sex- Men prone to earlier onset, Women after menopause due to lack estrogen. Race- African American Family History- CAD, HTN, DM Personal Medical History. Hypertension- Elevated blood pressure typically higher than 140/90. Serum Cholesterol- previously discussed. Obesity-BMI > 30. Diabetes Mellitus- uncontrolled by patient. Physical Inactivity Cigarette Smoking Alcohol Intake
Cigarette Smoking and Obesity Smoking effects on the cardiovascular system are dose dependent. Stopping smoking reduces risks of developing CAD by 50%. Second hand smoke increases risk by 30%. Obesity is body mass index greater than 30kg9m2. Physical activity has positive effects; for example lowering blood pressure, lipids, insulin levels, and weight. http://www.autogassolutions.co.uk/lpg-downloads/no-smoking-sign
Alcohol Consumption Alcohol consumed in small amounts can act as a vasodilator, in which lowers blood pressure. 1-2 Drinks is considered a small amount. Alcohol consumed in larger amounts can act as a vasoconstrictor, in which increases blood pressure. 3-4 Drinks is considered a large amount. http://antibioticsandalcohol.net/