Presentation on theme: "ILU Project Management Training"— Presentation transcript:
1 ILU Project Management Training Project Management IProject Initiation & Planning
2 Agenda - Day One Introductions Project Management Overview Break Project LifecycleLunchFive PMI Project Management ProcessesNine PMI Project Management Areas of KnowledgeOrganizational InfluencesWrap-up
3 Introductions Name Department Number of years at ILICO Number of projects you have managedAverage size of project you have managedCourse expectationsIce breakerIntroduce yourself and other instructor prior to asking class to introduce themselvesBy asking the number and size of projects the participants have managed, you get a good idea of the experience of the class. This will help you gauge the speed of going through the course material.Capture course expectations on on a flip chart. At the end of the 2 day class, as part of the wrap-up, refer back to captured expectations, review each expectation and ask class if that expectation was met.One instructor should write the expectations on a flip while the other polls the class for introduction informationIce breaker examples:most fun thing you have done the past yeardescribe favorite vacationdescribe the person sitting to your left as an animal you most think matches that persons personality
4 Ground Rules Level Playing Field (titles left at the door) One conversation at a timeRespect opinions of othersNo beating a dead horseCome back from breaks ON TIMEHave FUN
8 Course Objectives Understand characteristics of a project Understand characteristics of a project managerUnderstand the PMI project lifecycleUnderstand the 4 components of PMI project managementUnderstand the 9 bodies of knowledge of PMI project managementHow does project management operate within an organizational structureHow to define a projectUse Work Breakdown Structures as PM toolUnderstand characteristic of a projectwill define what a project is, give examples of different types of projectsUnderstand characteristics of a project managerdefine project managementreview traits that project managers need to possess4 components of PMI project managementreview and give examples of the 4 components9 areas of PMI project managementwill review and give examples of 9 areasHow does project management operate within an organizational structurewill review the different types of organizational structures and how project management techniques differ in each type of organizationHow to define a projectwill present a case study and class will develop project initiation, project charter and SOW documents using ILICO standardsUse WBS as a project management toolintroduce the concept of work breakdown structure, walk through examples, create WBS structures for case study, translate WBS to a detail project plan
10 Project Management Track Record 50% of all finished projects contain < 70% of original functionality - Center for Project ManagementOf the 175,000 projects costing $250 billion each year, 52.7% will over run their cost estimates by 189% - Standish Group31% of all projects were cancelled before they ever got completed - Standish GroupLess than1% of all systems development efforts are completed under budget and meeting user requirements - T. Capers Jones
11 Ten Causes of Project Busts Ask the participants NOT to look ahead in their student handbookAsk the participants what they think are the top 10 reasons. Write their top ten picks on this slideOnce completed show the next slide and notice similarities and differences
12 Ten Causes of Project Busts Poor problem definitionLack of supportNo one in chargeProject plan lacks structureProject plan lacks detailProject is under fundedInsufficient resourcesPoor trackingPoor communicationProject strays from goalsIS Managers SurveyState “according to an IS Managers Survey, these are the top ten reasons for busted projects”If there were differences in the student’s choices, hi-light, the fact that theirs were good answers too - there are no wrong answersAgain ask class not to look ahead and ask them, from this top 10 ten list, how many causes do you think could be mitigated by proper project initiation and planning?Put an asterisk next to each of their answers. After students have given their answers proceed to next slide.
13 Ten Causes of Project Busts * Poor problem definition* Lack of support* No one in charge* Project plan lacks structure* Project plan lacks detail* Project is under funded* Insufficient resourcesPoor tracking* Poor communicationProject strays from goalsIS Managers Survey* project initiation and planning will help mitigateBelieve it or not, 8 out of ten reasons for busted projects could have been mitigated using solid project management initiation and planning techniquesThe whole purpose of this course is to present to you these fundamental project management approaches as they relate to project initiation and planning.
14 Project Management Questionnaire Level 1EmbryonicLevel 0No Problem isrecognizedProject Scope, Timing, Cost, and Quality are not monitoredLevel 3GrowthA need forimprovedproject mgmtis recognizedBenefits ofare understoodInvestigationof improvementis exploredProject planningis requiredProject processesare developed forproject-to-projectimprovementProject mgmttools are providedProject status ontiming, cost, scopeand quality isexpected withempirical dataA continuingeducation programis establishedfor project mgmtSupport foris evident atvarious levelsof the organizationResources areinvested ineducation andassistanceMore authorityis allocated tothe project teamThe managementteam establishesexpectationsLevel 2CommitmentIntegrated cost andschedule controlindicators areimplementedThe organizationestablishes aproject managercareer pathA project mgmtadministrativeoffice is establishedA continuousprocess forproject mgmt isestablishedLevel 4MaturityInsert the results of the project management maturity questionnaire from the town hall meeting.These results can be different for each town hall, depending upon who was in the audience. You can do a running total, combining the results of all the town halls combined or show separate results.(for the initial training I will combine the results of both town hall meetings)Only 2% are Level 5For the Capability Maturity Model (CMM), a software development maturity model, only 2 companies are level 5ILICo
15 Why This Course?ILICO is serious about adopting and implementing proven project management frameworkCourse will explain purpose and steps of the project management initiation and planning phasesBefore going to next slide - ask the class what they think defines a project
16 Definition of a Project As defined by the Project Management Institute, in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK):“A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.”A project has a definite beginning with a definite end. The end is achieved when the project’s objectives of scope, timing, cost and quality have been reached or when these objectives cannot be reached and the project is terminated.A unique product or service implies it has not been done before or it is different in some distinguishing way from similar products or services.Examples of projects:This class is a small projectClass is offering a unique service and is a temporary endeavor - it lasts two days.This class is customized for ILICO and therefore distinguishes itself from other coursesHomeowner project (remodel basement)Longer timeline, more involvedstill has all the characteristics of a project
17 Characteristics of a Project Brings change to an existing organizationIs a unique effort - one which is not repeated over timeResources are allocated for the duration of a project onlyTypically involves a temporary organization (formal or informal)Often causes conflicts with existing operational resourcesUsually involves cross functional resourcesHas a defined start and end point, not an ongoing effortEstimates for timing and cost are mere estimatesChanges to the scope and objectives can occur during the project lifecycleExamples of estimates for timing(list all the steps or phases of the following and what the variables could be):Changing oil on cargrocery shoppingcooking dinnermowing grass
18 Definition of Project Management As defined by the Project Management Institute, in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK):“Project management is the application of knowledge, skills tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project.”This involves balancing competing demands among:Scope, time, cost and qualityStakeholders with differing needs and expectationsIdentified requirements (needs) and unidentified requirements (expectations)Program Management is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way. Also synonymous with project management in some organizations.Before going to next slide - ask the class what they think are characteristics or traits of a good project manager.
19 Characteristics of a Project Manager Communication skillsFacilitation skillsLeadership skillsOrganizational skillsNegotiating skillsProject Management Technical skillsNotice that 5 out of 6 project management characteristics are soft skills.
20 Communication Skills Excellent verbal skills Good writing skills with peers, management customers…Good writing skillsmemos, status reports, meeting minutes...Excellent meetings skillsagenda preparation, meeting facilitation, issues identification...Good ListenerExcellent verbal skillsability to clearly and succinctly communicate ideas, status and issuesEx: I like fish (what is the interpretation)Good writing skillsEx: Write quality status reports that clearly articulate the current status of the project (open issues, current accomplishments, future accomplishments, administrative tasks, updated project plan)Excellent meeting skillsMeeting must have a specific purpose and end result. Many meetings are a waste of time. Ask: how many in this room have been in a meeting that didn’t start on time, have a clear purpose or did not achieved any meaningful or tangible resultsAbility to organize a meeting, create an agenda, stick to the agenda, keep participants focused.Ex: start on time, pre-published agenda,Good ListenerSeeks first to understand then to be understood (covey - 7 habits of highly successful people).You don’t have to agree with what the other person is saying but you must understand their viewpoint and how/why they got thereEx:Auto racing is not a major sport
21 Facilitation Skills Facilitates conflict resolution team member to team memberteam member to functional organizationproject to organizationproject to stakeholderThree keys to facilitation:Understand the issues coming in (and document them)Be neutral - don’t take sides and listen to all opinionsGain consensus
22 Leadership Skills Ability to form a team and develop team cohesiveness Understands how to motivate team and achieve resultsUnderstands how to motivate individualsUnderstand the skill set required for the projectEnsure each member of the team is on the same pageOrientation process (project overview, project plan, tasks and end dates, roles and responsibilities)Get to know each person on the team. By understanding each member of your team you will be able to understand what motivates them. Accomplish this by walking through your project teams area on a daily basis. Try to talk to each person on the team.
23 Organizational Skills Good personal time managementDelegates/evaluates issuesAbility to multi-taskThis is the “HUB” of the skills.
24 Negotiating Skills Contract services Purchased goods for the project Resources from participating functional organizationsStakeholder requirements and expectationsResources from participating functional organizationsRemember the definition of a project - it is temporary and has a definite beginning and an endProjects will always have give and take relative to what needs to be done and when - therefore, will be doing a significant amount of negotiating.
25 Project Management Technical Skills Understands:the time management process and numbersthe cost management process and numbersquality and how to meet the requirementsthe scope management process and controlhow to effectively manage different projectsalternatives to correct deteriorating trends
26 Group Exercise Hand to Chin Exercise Objective: To illustrate that actions may speak louder than wordsProcedure:As you demonstrate, ask the group to extend their right arms parallel t o the floor. State, “Now, make a circle with your thumb and forefinger.” (As you speak, demonstrate the action.) Then continue, “Now, very firmly bring your hand to your chin.” (Note: As you say, “bring your hand to your chin,” bring your hand to your cheek, not to your chin.) Pause. (Most of the group will have done what you have, ie, brought their hands to their cheeks.) Look around, but say nothing. After 5-10 seconds, a few in the group will realize their error and move their hands to their chins. After a few more seconds, more people will join in the laughter, and your point can then be verbally reinforced -- a trainer’s actions may speak louder than words.Discussion Questions:1. Did you ever hear the saying, “Don’t do as I do, do as I say?” Do we practice this?2. We all know actions speak louder than words. How can we use this knowledge in our jobs to help ensure better understanding?3. Communication is always a scapegoat for performance problems. What other barriers to effective communication does this exercise suggest?
31 Recommend not spending too much time here - by the end of the class, they will have a much better understanding of this chart.Points - life cycle phases - always building upon the previousMajor processes - perform each process in each life cycle phase (some more heavily in certain phases)Knowledge areas - always using theseStress the triangles show where the process is primarily performed - all processes are performed to some degree in each life cycle phase.
32 Project Life CycleGood idea to come up with an example the class can relate too and follow through with that example on the next few slides:Examples:Paint a roomFinish a basementPlan a partyE.g. paint a room:Concept - think about it, will you do it yourself or contract out, get bidsDefine - determine paint color, when will it be done, details of stepsDevelop - actually do itDeliver - clean up and you are done!
33 Examples of Project Life Cycles RequirementsGatheringSystemDesign andPrototypingCode andUnit TestingAcceptanceTesting andDeploymentSoftware Development Life CycleFacilities Project Life CycleRequest andInitialForecastLayout,Estimating,and FundingFacility Design,BOM, andConstructionDebug andPunchlistPower Plant Outage Project Life CycleFeasibility andStrategic PlanApprovalEngineeringContract TermsMaterials andStart-upDiscuss the different phases of the various industries. Each has similar characteristics and all move from one phase to the next.Expand on the similarities associated with these various industries lifecycles and the project management lifecycleV E R B A L E X E R C I S EAsk the class:What is your specific department’s life cycle(Board the answers - be sure to get each department’s unique life cycle steps, notice the differences and the similarities)
34 Indianapolis Life’s Project Life Cycle Concept (Initiation, Charter, …)Define (Planning, Scheduling, Design, …)Develop (Creation, Testing, …)Deliver (Implementation, PI Review, …)Stress understanding that every industry or department has its own lifecycle.Industry specific lifecycles: Accounting, ManufacturingDepartment lifecycle: Accounts receivableAsk class if anyone is working on a project that has a defined lifecycle?Can usually relate all life cycles to the generic ILICO life cycle (may refer to previous slide)
35 Project Life CycleDue to the complexity and uncertainty of projects, organizations usually divide the project into phases. These phases collectively become the project life cycle.Characteristics of a Project Life Cycle:Cost and resources are at lower levels during the beginning, peak towards the middle and end, and drop-off rapidly near the end.Probability of completing the project successfully is lowest at the start, hence risk and uncertainty is greatest at the beginning.The ability of stakeholders to influence the cost and outcome of the project is greatest at the beginning.Turn to the next slide and ask the class to discuss the characteristics of the PLC and Project Phase specific to their projects.
36 Project Life Cycle Phases Due to the complexity and uncertainty of projects, organizations usually divide the project into phases. These phases collectively become the project life cycle.Characteristics of a Project Phase:Completion of one or more deliverables.Phases are generally sequential, but may overlap.The end of each phase normally involves a review of the deliverables.These reviews require a decision to either move forward to the next phase, perform further work in the current phase or terminate the project altogether.Turn to the next slide and ask the class to discuss the characteristics of the PLC and Project Phase specific to their projects.
37 Project Life Cycle Concept Define Develop Deliver TIMEStress the “Z axis” includes 9 project management bodies of knowledge. Ask the class to discuss the characteristics of the PLC and Project Phase specific to their projects.ScopeTimeCostQualityCommunicationsRiskHuman ResourcesContract / ProcurementScopeTimeCostQualityCommunicationsRiskHuman ResourcesContract / ProcurementScopeTimeCostQualityCommunicationsRiskHuman ResourcesContract / ProcurementScopeTimeCostQualityCommunicationsRiskHuman ResourcesContract / Procurement
38 Project Life Cycle Phases ConceptDefineDevelopDeliverTIMEGather DataIdentify Project NeedsEstablish Goals, objectives, basic economics, feasibility, stakeholders,risk level, strategy, potential teamEstimate ResourcesPresent ProposalObtain approval for next phaseAppoint Key Team membersConduct StudiesDevelop Scope Baseline, products, quality standards, resources, work tasksEstablish Master Plan, Budget, Cash Flow, WBS, Policies and proceduresAssess RisksConfirm JustificationPresent Project BriefObtain approval to proceedSet up organization & communicationsMotivate TeamDetail RequirementsEstablish Work Packages and Information Control SystemsProcure goods and servicesExecute Work PackagesDirect/Monitor/Fore-cast/Control: Scope, Quality, Time, CostResolve ProblemsFinalize product or servicesReview and acceptSettle final accountsTransfer product or service responsibilityEvaluate ProjectDocument Lessons LearnedRelease/Redirect ResourcesReassign Project TeamDiscuss the Project Life Cycle phase and the intent of each phaseShow how each phase can be used as a checklist or a “go no go” decision to move to the next phase
39 Project Life Cycle - Concept Phase Gather DataIdentify project needsEstablish goals, objectives, feasibility, stakeholders, risk level, strategy, potential teamEstimate resourcesPresent proposalObtain approval for next phaseGather data for feasibility / identify AlternativesIdentification of the need business, technological, legal,market demandEstablish strategy, goals, deliverables and objectives quantifiable criteriaProposal presented Project Charter, Scope Statement (justification, product brief, deliverables, objectives), Overall Timing, Financial Budget Estimate, Assumptions and ConstraintsFollow through with more details of your example
40 Project Life Cycle - Define Phase Appoint key team membersConduct studiesDefinescope baseline - resourcesproducts - work tasksquality standardsEstablishmaster plan - WBSbudget - policies & proceduresAppoint key team members.Develop scope baseline Work Breakdown Structures (WBS), Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)Establish schedules, resources, budgetsProject Management Plans Human resource (HR), Communication Matrix (CM), Risk Response Matrix (RRM),and Quality planObtain approval to proceedFollow through with more details of your example
41 Project Life Cycle - Develop Phase Set up organization and communicationsMotivate teamDetail requirementsEstablish work packages and information control systemsProcure goods and servicesExecute work packagesDirect, monitor, forecast, control:scope - timequality - costResolve ProblemsStress the importance to class of directing and monitoring time, cost, scope and quality issues that we have during the execution of the work packagesMust have management plans in place that will help facilitate controlling these aspects such as (Scope change request) (Management Reserves built into project) and a baseline plan which you can track against for time and cost.Resolve problems as they occur. Possibilities include development of an “Issues Database” that allow project team members to enter any issues and they can be tracked until resolution occurs.Follow through with more details of your example
42 Project Lifecycle - Deliver Phase Finalize product or servicesReview and acceptSettle final accountsTransfer product or service responsibilityEvaluate projectDocument lessons learnedRelease/redirect resourcesReassign project teamFinalize product, transfer product responsibilityEvaluate project and document resultsReassign project resourcesStress the importance of termination phase in terms of many projects fail because of poor termination and a smooth transition into an operational modeOVERALL LIFECYCLE PHASES ARE USED AS CHECKLISTS THAT ALLOW YOU TO PROCEED FROM ONE PHASE TO THE NEXT
43 Project Life Cycle Phases Influence on CostHighBeginning PhasesIntermediate PhasesFinal PhasesCost ExpenditureAbilitytoInfluenceCostIt is easier and less expensive to make changes while still on the drawing board than it is to implement the changes in the field.Requires up-front thinking in all nine project management bodies of knowledgeScopeTimeCostQualityCommunicationHuman ResourcesRisk ManagementProcurementIntegrationCost InfluenceLowTIME
44 Project Life Cycle Phases Resources per PhaseConceptDevelopmentImplementationTerminationRESOURCESDiscuss how resource requirements grows over time and then declines. Knowing the peaks and valleys is key to maximize resource usage.Explain how strong project management may enable projects to spend more resources during the planning phases and less during actual execution and terminationTIMEThe greatest amount of resource usage normally occurs during the implementation phase of the project.
47 Project or phase is approved 5 PMI PM ProcessesInitiatingProcessesPlanningExecutingControllingClosingPlan developed for executionPlan is executed and ControlledAs the executionis controlled, it mayrequire additionalplanningPlan is successfully executedPlan and executionhas been controlledFeedback in both directionsProject or phase is approvedin order to proceedStress the importance that the project management processes are “never ending” each process is initiated or reviewed during all phases of the project lifecycleStress how interactive the processes are.A project is distinguished by the initiating and closing processes - otherwise it is not a project.
48 5 PMI PM Processes - Initiating InitiateInitiating ProcessesInitiation is the process of formally recognizing that a new project exists or that an existing project should continue into its next phase.Tools & TechniquesInputsOutputsProduct DescriptionStrategic PlanProject selection CriteriaHistorical InformationProject Selection methodsExpert judgmentProject CharterProject manager identified/ assignedConstraintsAssumptionsInitiating Process is the “kick off” to determining if the business need is indeed a project and if it should be treated as such moving forwardBE SURE TO DISCUSS THE ILICO PROCESSES - The initiation form and Prioritization committee
49 5 PMI PM Processes - Initiating DefinitionThe process of formally recognizing that a new project exists or that a project should proceed to the next phaseProjects are normally identified as the result of:Market demandBusiness needsCustomer requestTechnology advanceLegal requirementsMarket DemandEx: deregulationBusiness NeedsEx: Expand product lineCustomer RequestEx: New product lineTechnology AdvanceEx: WEB based developmentLegal RequirementsEx: Tax code changes
50 5 PMI PM Processes - Initiating Project Scope Management“A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.”The project scope is measured against the plan and the product scope is measured against the requirements upon completion. These two scope management areas need to be integrated to ensure successful completion of the project.Product scope is the features and functions included in a product or service.Project scope is the work required to deliver the product with it’s features and functions.Stress that the scope forms the basis for comparing performance once implementation begins.First sentence is key - all of the work required and only the work required to complete the project successfully.
51 5 PMI PM Processes - Initiating Once a potential project has been identified, the following items need to be available or developed by a project manager and the senior management team:Product description - documents the characteristics of the product or service, it also identifies where the need was recognized from the previous list. The more detail contained in the product description, the better, but the product description will normally become more detailed as the project progresses.Initial high level budget and timing estimates with resource requirementsStrategic goals - all potential projects should be in support of the strategic goals of the organizationProject selection criteria - ROI, market share, impact on the organization (positive/negative), or probability of successHistorical information - how successful has past project selections been, previous project performanceDiscuss how these items form the scope basis.Before next slide - ask how they think projects should be selected.
52 5 PMI PM Processes - Initiating A project selection method is applied to the previous list of inputs. The project initiation method involves a documented process for project initiation that includes:Identified individuals or group of individuals to make the decisionA method of evaluating project selection criteria (comparison to other projects, mathematical scores, presentations of opinions)Expert judgment from consultants, professional organizations, educational institutions, industry groups)Communication plan of the decisionForms and standards for submissionDiscuss that all projects should include the previous mentioned inputs in order to determine which projects should be pursued and which should not.
53 5 PMI PM Processes - Planning Planning ProcessPlanning is of major importance to a project because the project involves doing something which has not been done before. However, the number of planning processes does not mean that project management is primarily planning – the amount of planning performed should be commensurate with the scope of the project and the usefulness of the information developed.Tools & TechniquesInputsOutputsDo enough to comfortably get started - ok to make assumptions so you can get started.Other planning outputsHistorical infoOrganizational policiesConstraintsAssumptionsProject planning methodologyStakeholder skills and knowledgeProject management information system (PMIS)Project planSupporting details
54 5 PMI PM Processes - Planning Scope Planningdeveloping a written scope statement as the basis for future project decisions (ex. Freshly painted blue house with 2 coats of paint)Scope Definitionsubdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable componentsActivity Definitionidentifying the specific activities that must be performed to produce the various project deliverables (ex. Purchase paint, position ladders, apply paint…)Activity Sequencingidentifying and documenting interactivity dependencies (ex. Must purchase before application)Scope definition - how deliverActivity definition - to do listActivity sequencing - the order of the to do list
55 5 PMI PM Processes - Planning Activity Duration Estimatingestimating the number of work periods which will be needed to complete individual activitiesSchedule Developmentanalyzing activity sequences, activity duration's and resource requirements to create the project scheduleResource Planningdetermining what resources (people, equipment, materials) and what quantities of each should be used to perform project activitiesCost Estimatingdeveloping an approximation (estimate) of the costs of the resources needed to complete project activitiesActivity duration estimating - how long will it takeSchedule development - review for reasonablenessResource planning - look at skills as well and are they available
56 5 PMI PM Processes - Planning Cost Budgetingallocating the overall cost estimate to individual work itemsProject Plan Developmenttaking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent document
57 5 PMI PM Processes - Executing ExecuteExecuting ProcessesProject execution is the accomplishment of the objectives of the project by the performing organization.Tools & TechniquesInputsOutputsProject PlanSupporting detailsOrganizational policiesCorrective actionGeneral mgmt skillsProduct skills & knowledgeWork authorization systemStatus review mtingsProject mgmt infoOrganizational proceduresWork resultsChange requestsSkim this - not the focus of the classStress that the Executing Processes consist of:Project Plan ExecutionScope VerificationQuality AssuranceTeam DevelopmentInformation DistributionSolicitationSource SelectionContract Administration
58 5 PMI PM Processes - Executing Project Plan Executioncarrying out the project plan by performing the activities included thereinScope Verificationformalizing acceptance of the project scopeQuality Assuranceevaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standardsTeam Developmentdeveloping individual and group skills to enhance project performance
59 5 PMI PM Processes - Executing Information Distributionmaking needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely mannerSolicitationobtaining quotations, bids, offers or proposals as appropriateSource Selectionchoosing from among potential sellersContract Administrationmanaging the relationship with the seller
60 5 PMI PM Processes - Controlling Controlling ProcessesProject performance must be measured regularly to identify variances from the plan. Variances are fed into the control processes in the various knowledge areas. To the extent that significant variances are observed (i.e., those that jeopardize the project objectives), adjustments to the plan are made by repeating the appropriate project planning processes. Controlling also includes taking preventative action in anticipation of possible problems.Tools & TechniquesInputsOutputsSkim this - not the focus of the classProject planPerformance reportsChange requestsChange control systemConfiguration ManagementPerformance ManagementAdditional PlanningPMISProject plan updatesCorrective actionLessons learned
61 5 PMI PM Processes - Controlling Overall Change Controlcoordinating changes across the entire projectScope Change Controlcontrolling changes to the project scopeSchedule Change Controlcontrolling changes to the project scheduleCost Controlcontrolling changes to the project budgetQuality ControlMonitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance
62 5 PMI PM Processes - Controlling Performance Reportingcollecting and disseminating performance information. This includes status reporting, progress measurement and forecastingRisk Response Controlresponding to changes in risk over the course of the project
63 5 PMI PM Processes - Closing Closing Processes· Administrative closure – generating gathering, and disseminating information to formalize phase or project completion· Contract close-out – completion and settlement of the contract, including resolution of any open itemsStress that closing process is important because we need to have a smooth transition from a project environment to an operational environmentGive examples of ILICO projects (a verbal agreement could be considered an acceptance agreement)Signoff on a design documentCompleted list of policies to correct in BEST
64 Project or phase is approved 5 PMI PM ProcessesInitiatingProcessesPlanningExecutingControllingClosingPlan developed for executionPlan is executed and ControlledAs the executionis controlled, it mayrequire additionalplanningPlan is successfully executedPlan and executionhas been controlledFeedback in both directionsProject or phase is approvedin order to proceedStress the importance that the project management processes are “never ending” each process is initiated or reviewed during all phases of the project lifecycleSkim this - recapping what was just discussed and how they interact
67 9 PMI PM Knowledge Areas Scope Management Risk Management understanding what is to be accomplished, by who and when? Ensure everyone focused on the right activity at the right timeRisk Managementminimizing threats and weakness while optimizing opportunities and strengthsQuality Managementdetermining the quality policy of the project and then determining the practices to ensure project qualityHuman Resource Managementdetermining the roles and responsibilities of the resources necessary to support the project as well as the skills and timing needsCommunications Managementdetermines what will be communicated, Frequency of communications and who will receive communicationsAgain, most people think of “Scheduling” when you say project management. Project Management is a collection of bodies of Knowledge that include (those listed)Tell class that we are going to briefly cover all of the Bodies of Knowledge, but we are going to focus more on Scope and Time Management, over the next day
68 9 PMI PM Knowledge Areas Contract / Procurement Management determines how suppliers will be selected and the contract types that will be administeredTime Managementdetermines how long each activities takes to complete to ensure timely completion of the projectCost Managementdetermines the costs of resources and materials to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budgetIntegration ManagementEach BOK is integrated with each other at differing degrees of application depending on where and when you are in the life cycle phaseAgain, most people think of “Scheduling” when you say project management. Project Management is a collection of bodies of Knowledge that include (those listed)Tell class that we are going to briefly cover all of the Bodies of Knowledge, but we are going to focus more on Scope and Time Management, over the next day
69 9 PMI PM Knowledge Areas - Scope Scope Management“The function of controlling a project in terms of its deliverables and objectives through the concept, development, implementation and termination phases of a project.” (PMBOK)Key Points:Establish and document the project deliverables and objectivesScope statement, items included and not included Justification, Overall Timing, Financial Budget, Assumptions and ConstraintsWork Breakdown Structure, basis of workResources are defined and they support the deliverables, objectives, scope and WBSImplementing a change control process on the project deliverables, resources, WBSHow do you define and document the scope of work for projects you work on?What process do you use to control changes in scope?
70 9 PMI PM Knowledge Areas - Risk Risk Management“The formal process of identifying, analyzing and responding to risk factors throughout the life of a project and in the best interest of its objectives.” (PMBOK)Key Points:“Project risk is the chance of uncertain occurrences that will adversely affect project activities.” (PMBOK)Identification of risk - Impact analysis - Response system and Response planningGoal: Reduce the likelihood and impact of a negative event or optimize opportunityCertain is 100%, Risk (some probability to occur) and Uncertain (no data available). Need to understand “We know we know (Certain), we know what we don’t know (Risk) and we don’t know what we don’t know (uncertainty)Identify the RISK, Quantify the RISK, Develop a Response to the RISK and Control (mitigate) the RISKCollege Graduation Outdoors example (mitigation could be a weather protected setup as a backup) Would you have a mitigation plan for the ice sculpture?What Risk Management is practiced in your organization?
71 9 PMI PM Knowledge Areas - Quality Quality Management“Quality itself is the composite of material attributes of the product process or service that is required to satisfy the need for which the project is launched.” (PMBOK)Key Points:Proceed through a project’s four phases with zero deviations from the project specifications/objectivesImprove the quality of the project process and the quality of the project outcome improvesEntire discipline in Quality. Proprietary Q Methods such as Crosby, Juran or Deming versus non-proprietary Q methods such as TQM and continuous improvement.Quality Management is specific; whereas, Corp Quality policy is generic and applies to the whole organization.How do you develop Quality Management Plans for your projects?Q
72 9 PMI PM Knowledge Areas - HR Human Resource Management“The function of directing and coordinating human resources throughout the life of the project by applying the art and science of behavior and administrative knowledge to achieve predetermined project objectives of scope, cost, time quality and participant satisfaction”. (PMBOK)Key Points:Identify the necessary skills for the success of the projectChoose the right people for the project (most available and qualified for the assignment)Set up the right organization (functional, matrix, project)Communications (how teams communicate inter and intra-teamTeam building (team formation and conflict resolution)Project Manager must focus on human dimensions more so than functional managerNeed to understand motivators (Maslow and MacGregor Theory X and Y) because only have resources for short time frameBriefly define the X and Y theory - Theory X are lazy where Theory Y are more drivenNeed to negotiate with Functional resources for borrowed resourcesWill spend a lot of time here and dove tails with communication - will spend more time than expected.
73 9 PMI PM Knowledge Areas - Communication Communications Management“The proper organization and control of information transmitted by whatever means to satisfy the needs of the project. It includes the processes of transmitting, filtering, receiving and interpreting or understanding information using appropriate skills according to the application in the project environment.” (PMBOK)Key Points:Communication can be upward, downward, lateral or diagonalMediums include: oral, verbal, written, non-verbal and visualBarriers to communication - withholding information, hidden agendas or mixed messagesHow do you communicate project information to management and project team members?What information do you communicate?Negotiations and information exchange should be above the table in order to establish trustState that ILICO has a “Communication Template” and that it should be used. It can be found in the Project Charter document to be discussed later.Ask how much time they think will be spent on this:90% of the project manager’s time will be spent executing this skill (along with human resource mgmt)
74 9 PMI PM Knowledge Areas - Procurement Contract / Procurement Management“The function through which resources (including people, plant, equipment and materials) are acquired for the project (usually through some form of formal contract) in order to produce the end product.” (PMBOK)Key Points:Objective - Acquisition - ProcurementAcquisition: Methods, source selection, contract type, documents, bidding process, evaluation/negotiations awardAllocation of risk: Firm fixed price, cost plus fixed feePhilosophically we should be striving to strike a balance between customer and supplier in regards to risk and costsWhat process do you use to procure resources in your organization?Is the procurement process different for different projects?Skim this - tend to be done when getting outside resourcesContractfor Services
75 9 PMI PM Knowledge Areas - Time Time Management“The function required to maintain appropriate allocation of time to the overall conduct of the project through the four phases of the project by means of the processes of the time planning, time estimating, time scheduling and schedule control.” (PMBOK)Time Management Process discuss the four major processes of Time managementPlanning --Using a WBS to assist us in identifying the work activity necessary for attainment of project deliverablesEstimating-- Determining the elapsed time versus the level of effortScheduling-- Gain an understanding in determining the early and late deliverable delivery dates and calculating the amount of “total float”Resources –discuss how resources are assigned from a scheduling point of viewBCDEFGIJKLMN
76 9 PMI PM Knowledge Areas - Cost Cost Management“The function required to maintain effective financial control of the project through the processes of evaluating, estimating, budgeting, monitoring, analyzing, forecasting and reporting the cost information.” (PMBOK)Project cost management is primarily concerned with the cost of the resources needed to complete project activitiesProject cost management should consider the information needs of the project stakeholders - different stakeholders measure project costs in different ways and at different times
77 9 PMI PM Knowledge Areas - Integration Integration Management“The processes required to ensure that the various elements are properly coordinated. It involves making tradeoffs among competing objectives and alternatives in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations.” (PMBOK)Key Points:Project plan development - taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent documentProject plan execution - carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included thereinOverall change control - coordinating changes across the entire projectProcesses interact with each other and with processes in the other BOK areas as wellEach process may involve effort from one or more individuals or groups of individuals based on the needs of the projectEach process generally occurs at least once in every project phase
78 Triple ConstraintAs project managers, we are always trying to manage the constraints of product, schedule, and budgetProduct… The “Triple Constraint”Stress the point that it is very easy for a project manager to isolate one specific constraint and manage it very easily, it becomes more difficult when all constraints have impacts and implications to othersBest to prioritize these at the beginning of the project with the sponsor - cannot have all 3. If time and quality are key - it will be expensive. If cost is most important, time or quality may suffer, etc.ScheduleBudget
79 Project Life Cycle Wrap-Up ConceptDefineDevelopDeliverTIMEStress the “Z axis” includes 9 Bodies Of Knowledge. Ask the class to discuss the characteristics of the PLC and Project Phase specific to their projects.ScopeTimeCostQualityCommunicationsRiskHuman ResourcesContract / ProcurementScopeTimeCostQualityCommunicationsRiskHuman ResourcesContract / ProcurementScopeTimeCostQualityCommunicationsRiskHuman ResourcesContract / ProcurementScopeTimeCostQualityCommunicationsRiskHuman ResourcesContract / Procurement
85 Organizational Influences Projects are part of an organization, which will influence the project during it’s life cycle.Organizations can be classified as:Project-Driven Organizationsoperations deal primarily with projects. These organizations derive their revenue from performing projects for others or the organization has adopted management by projects.ORNon-Project-Driven Organizationswhich derive their primary revenue from operations other than projects. Insurance companies, financial institutions, manufacturing companies and utility companies are normally examples of non-project-driven organizations.Ask the class whether they believe their organization is project-driven or non-project-driven. Have them provide the reasons
86 Organizational Influences The project management team needs to be aware of the type of organization they are working within. The organizational influences will vary significantly with the degree of operations from project-driven to non-project-driven.The structure of the organization has many variations:(1) Functional Organization: “An organizational structure in which staff are grouped hierarchically by specialty.MGRCEOSTAFFProject CoordinationStress that project coordination occurs at the manager level
87 Organizational Influences (2) Matrix Organization: “Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of individuals assigned to the project.”Matrix organizations can vary from a weak matrix, where most of the characteristics of a functional organization exists and the project manager has limited authority, to a strong matrix organization, where the project manager has an equal or greater authority on the project than the functional organizations.MGRCEOPROJECT MGRSTAFFStress that project coordination occurs at the staff levelProject Coordination
88 Organizational Influences The degree an organization is matrixed on a project typically relies upon factors such as:Project SizeProject ComplexityProject DurationProject BudgetImportance to the OrganizationManagement PhilosophyPhysical LocationNumber of Participating GroupsStress the different factors to understand which organizational structure is best for their project.
89 Organizational Influences (3) Project Organization: “Any organizational structure in which the project manager has full authority to assign priorities and to direct the work of individuals assigned to the project.”PROJECTMGRCEOSTAFFStress that project coordination occurs within project organization.Project Coordination
90 Organizational Influences TypeFunctional Weak Matrix Strong Matrix ProjectProjectCharacteristicsProject Mgr.'sAuthorityLittle/NoneLimitedModerate/HighHigh/TotalProject Mgr.'sRolePart-TimePart-TimeFull-TimeFull-TimeProject Mgmt.Admin. StaffPart-TimePart-TimeFull-TimeFull-TimeHere are the different organization types and some of their characteristicsGood ProjectMgmt. SystemSecondary/IntegrationStrong Systemfor ProjectsLittle/NoneLittlePercent of TeamAssigned Full TimeNone0-25%50-90%80-100%Ability of ProjectTeam to InfluenceOrganizational &Process ChangesLittle/NoneLimitedModerate/HighHigh/Total
91 Socioeconomic Influences The project management team needs to recognize the potential socioeconomic influences on the project. These influences can be as great or greater than organizational influences.Some examples are:Regulations - building codes, Nuclear Regulatory Commission on construction of a nuclear power plant, government contractsStandards - EDI, metric vs. U.S system, wire colorInternational - time zone differences, holidays, politics, transportationCultural - education, religious, attitudes, beliefsDiscuss the external environment that effects the success of projects. Ask the class to describe any external factors that could inhibit success for their projects.
92 Agenda - Day Two Day One Overview Project Initiation Project Planning BreakProject CharterLunchWork Breakdown StructuresResource EstimatesProject Schedule DevelopmentReview and Wrap-up
93 Day One Overview Project Management Overview Project Lifecycle Five PMI Project Management ProcessesNine PMI Project Management Areas of KnowledgeOrganizational InfluencesAsk the class to list the items under life cycle and re-draw on a flip chart as they state them (asking where they go as well).Should rebuild the diagram illustrating the life cycle and process interrelationships.
97 Project InitiationThe first of the five project management processes, initiation kicks things off right. It is critical to the long term success of the project.Stress the triangles show where the process is primarily performed - all processes are performed to some degree in each life cycle phase.
98 ILICo’s Project Initiation Processes Indianapolis Life’s project initiation process involves:Drafting the very simple Project Initiation formGaining the sponsorship of your manager or department headGaining the support of the Prioritization Committee for projects over $250 kGaining the approval to proceed on to the planning process
99 Show blank template of ILICO project initiation template form. Walk through each component of the ILICO project initiation form. State the desired purpose for each section, and how it should properly be completedAfter each component of the form has been reviewed, introduce the first group exerciseBreak out into groups and have each group complete the Project initiation form for the construction project
101 Group ExerciseCreate Project Initiation Form for the ILICO Construction ProjectReview project overviewReview sample Project Initiation FormBreak into groupsComplete Project Initiation FormPresent resultsProvide each group with blank ILICO Project Initiation Form transparencies and markers for completing the exerciseAllow 20 minutes for group to complete exercise (facilitators should constantly monitor groups for progress and to answer any questions they may have. Notice if the group is stuck and steer the group in the right direction without giving them the answers.Allow each group 10 minutes to present their results.Show teacher’s sample. Just pass out and let class keep.(use the teacher’s handout as knowledge transfer - class can use teacher’s handout as base line for future exercises and as reference material when they are managing real projects.
102 Project PlanningNow we are ready to discuss the second major project management process, project planning.
103 Project StakeholdersProject Stakeholders are: “individuals and organizations who are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution or successful project completion”.The project management team must:Identify the project stakeholdersDetermine their requirementsDetermine their expectationsManage and influence these requirements and expectationsThe management of the project stakeholders’ requirements and expectations can be extremely difficult. The project management team should resolve conflicts in favor of the project customer.Conflicts may surface, such as:The customer requires a modernized information system with a finite budget and implementation in a short period of time, while the Chief Information Officer expects the project to include state-of-the-art networking technology.Stress the significance of the requirements (knowns) versus the expectations (unknowns)
104 Project Stakeholders Categories of project stakeholders: InternalExternalOwnersFinanciersSuppliersContractorsTeam MembersCustomersExamples of project stakeholders:Project SponsorProject ManagerCustomer(s)Performing OrganizationsCFOSoftware SupplierOperatorAsk the class to list some of the project stakeholders in some of the projects they have been involved in. Not the names but rather the position and level in organization
105 ILICo’s Project Planning Processes Indianapolis Life’s project planning activities revolve around:Developing the work breakdown structureIdentifying the necessary resources, skills and experienceWorking with the proper department heads to discuss the needed resources and obtaining commitment from the department heads of specific individuals able to work on the project. This commitment should also include a planned timeframe for resource availabilityCreating the final project charter as the project planning master document
106 The basic planning process involves the steps (listed on the slide) The basic planning process involves the steps (listed on the slide). The final output of the planning process is a completed project plan. Indianapolis Life’s project plan is the project charter document. The project charter contains more than just the project schedule. It outlines the scope, schedule, organization, approach and other areas of project management.
107 Scope Planning (ILICo Project Charter) Scope planning is the process of developing a written scope statement as the basis for future project decisions including, in particular, the criteria used to determine if the project or phase has been completed successfully.Outputs of Scope Planning:Project justification - the business need that the project was undertaken to address. The project justification provides the basis for evaluating future trade-offs.Project product - a brief summary of the product description.Project deliverables - a list of the summary level sub-projects whose full and satisfactory delivery marks completion of the project.Project objectives - the quantifiable criteria that must be met for the project to be considered successful. Project objectives must include, at least, cost, schedule and quality measures. Unquantified objectives entail high risk.Discuss how scope planning builds on the Project Initiation Form to better define the project at a lower level
113 ILICo’s Project Charter Project charter defines the boundaries of the entire projectTool that a Project Manager can choose to use on medium to large projectsComponents of a project charter include:project background - project responsibilitiesobjectives - delivery criteriaapproach - communication planscope - costrisks - schedulingassumptionsProvide each group with blank ILICO Project Charter Form transparencies and markers for completing the exerciseAllow 20 minutes for group to complete exercise (facilitators should constantly monitor groups for progress and to answer any questions they may have. Notice if the group is stuck and steer the group in the right direction without giving them the answers.Allow each group 10 minutes to present their results.Show teachers sample. Just pass out and let class keep.(use the teachers handout as knowledge transfer - class can use teachers handout as base line for future exercises and as reference material when they are managing real projects.
114 Show blank template of ILICO project charter template form. Walk through each component of the ILICO project charter form. State the desired purpose for each section, and how it should properly be completedAfter each component of the form has been reviewed, introduce the group exerciseBreak out into groups and have each group complete the Project charter form for the construction project
121 Group ExerciseCreate Project Charter for the ILICO Construction Project ExerciseReview project overviewReview sample Project CharterBreak into groupsComplete Project CharterPresent resultsProvide each group with blank ILICO Project charter transparencies and markers for completing the exerciseAllow 30 minutes for group to complete exercise (facilitators should constantly monitor groups for progress and to answer any questions they may have. Notice if the group is stuck and steer the group in the right direction without giving them the answers.Allow each group 10 minutes to present their results.Show teachers sample. Just pass out and let class keep.(use the teachers handout as knowledge transfer - class can use teachers handout as base line for future exercises and as reference material when they are managing real projects.)
123 Scope DefinitionWe will be covering the core processes and not the facilitating processes.
124 Scope DefinitionScope definition involves subdividing the major project deliverables (as identified in the scope statement) into smaller, more manageable components in order to:Improve the accuracy of cost, time, and resource estimatesDefine a baseline for performance measurement and controlFacilitate clear responsibility assignmentsOutputs of Scope Definition:Work breakdown structure - A work breakdown structure is a deliverable-oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and defines the total scope of the project: work not in the WBS is outside the scope of the project. As with the scope statement, the WBS is often used to develop or confirm a common understanding of project scope.Discuss how scope planning builds on the Project Initiation Form to better define the project at a lower level
126 Work Breakdown Structures Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) - “A deliverable oriented ‘family tree’ which organizes, defines, and graphically displays the total work to be accomplished in order to achieve the ultimate deliverable of a project. Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project deliverable.” (PMBOK)WBS SCHEMATIC1.0 ReroofHouse1.1 MaterialsEstimation1.2 MaterialsGathering1.3 RoofApplicationMethod to decompose deliverable into supporting subordinate sub-deliverablesTypically NOUN orientedDecompose to the level most comfortable which also provides meaningful management informationIntroduce reroofing project.Level numbers show the hierarchy.Go through the example.1.1.1 MeasureRoof1.1.2 CalculateMaterials1.2.1 PurchaseMaterials1.2.2 TakeDelivery1.3.1 RoofRemoval1.3.2 RoofApplicationRemoveShinglesRemoveNailsApplyShinglesCutCapsApplyCaps
127 Work Breakdown Structures Purpose of the WBS:Defines the work to be performed (Scope)Basis for cost estimating and collectionBasis for resource allocationBasis for time estimatingDefines responsibility of the workBasis for determining relationshipsMethod for systematically decomposing the work effort to determine the scope.AboveCeilingConveyorInstallationBelowStress that WBSProvides Focus - the orientation of how to accomplish the deliverablesTells quickly what is included and excluded
128 Group ExerciseCreate WBS for construction project
129 ILICO Construction Project Exercise WBS SchematicExpansion Project (0)Existing Building (1.0)New Building (1.1)Landscaping (1.2)An example WBS. There are many different ways to approach a WBS. The key is developing one that enables the project manager to identify the deliverables and key activities that must be done to accomplish the project objectives.Office Space (1.0.1)Conference Rooms (1.0.2)Office Space (1.1.1)Conference Rooms (1.1.2)Architectural Plan (1.2.1)Temporary Office Space ( )Implementation Plan ( )Vendor Selection ( )
130 Resource PlanningWe will be covering the core processes and not the facilitating processes.
131 Resource PlanningResource planning involves determining what physical resources (people, equipment, materials) and what quantities of each should be used to perform project activities.Outputs of Resource Planning:Resource Requirements - The output of resource planning process is a description of what types of resources are required and in what quantities for each element of the work breakdown structure. These resources will be obtained either through staff acquisition or procurement.Resource Estimate Worksheet - The resource estimate worksheet may be completed with the project initiation form to formulate initial thoughts on resource needs. It should be refined during the planning process.Resource planning enables a project manager to think through the skills and experience needed for the project to meet its objectives.Identifying the number of individuals, by skill and experience level will enable the project manager to help the department head to identify the individuals who are capable (and available) to work on the project.
132 ILICo’s Project Planning Processes A key part of ILICo’s planning process is the identification of resource needs. Identifying these needs, and then obtaining resource commitment from the department on resource availability and schedule are a key to project success.
133 Resource Estimate Worksheet The resource estimate worksheet is a tool that can be used in both the initiation process and in the planning process.This tool is used to estimate the number of Full Time Equivalents (FTEs) needed from each department to accomplish the project objectives.The Project Center rolls these up for major projects to report the current and projected demands by department and by project.
138 Activities and Schedule Development We will be covering the core processes and not the facilitating processes.
139 Activity DefinitionActivity definition involves identifying and documenting the specific activities that must be performed in order to produce the deliverables and sub-deliverables identified in the work breakdown structure. Implicit in this process is the need to define the activities such that the project objectives will be met.Outputs of Activity Definition:Activity List - The activity list must include all activities which will be performed on the project. It should be organized as an extension to the WBS.Supporting Detail - Supporting detail for the activity list should be documented and organized as needed to facilitate its use by other project management processes. Supporting detail should always include documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints.WBS Updates - In using the WBS to identify which activities are needed, the project team may identify missing deliverables or corrections to the WBS.Activity definition involves taking the work breakdown structure and identifying the activities that must occur to accomplish the project objectives.The level at which activity definition is done depends on both the complexity of the project and the experience level of the project manager and project team.
140 Re-Roofing Project Activity List 1.1.1 Measure Roof1.1.2 Calculate Materials1.2.1 Purchase Materials1.2.2 Take DeliveryRemove ShinglesRemove NailsApply ShinglesCut CapsApply CapsActivities are verb oriented.
141 Activity SequencingActivity sequencing involves identifying and documenting interactivity dependencies. Activities must be sequenced accurately in order to support later development of a realistic and achievable schedule.Outputs of Activity Sequencing:Project Network Diagram - A project network diagram is a schematic display of the project’s activities and the logical relationships (dependencies) among them.Activity List Updates - In much the same manner that the activity definition process may generate updates to the WBS, preparation of the project network diagram may reveal instances where an activity must be divided or otherwise redefined in order to diagram the correct logical relationships.Activity sequencing attempts to capture the required and decided order in which activities must be completed.Some common terms people may hear are:DependenciesFinish to Start dependencies
142 Re-Roofing Project Network Diagram 1.1.1 MeasureRoof1.1.2 CalculateMaterials1.2.1 PurchaseMaterials1.2.2 TakeDeliveryRemoveShinglesFor the re-roofing project example:+ You must measure the roof before you can calculate the materials (this is a finish to start dependency)+ You much purchase the materials before you can take delivery of them+ Because of the risk of rain or delay in delivery, we are choosing to make the removal of the old roof dependent on the delivery of the materials for the new roof+ While you must start removing the shingles before you remove all the nail that are left, you don’t have to finish removing all the shingles before you start removing nails. You can start removing nails sometime after removing shingles has started. (this is a start to start dependency with a start lag time)+ Similarly, you can start applying shingles after you have removed part of the roof, but you don’t have to wait until all of the shingles and nails have been removed (another start to start dependency with a start lag time)+ You can begin cutting caps after you have started applying some of the shingles+ You can begin applying caps after you have cut enough of them to apply.ApplyShinglesRemoveNailsCutCapsApplyCaps
143 Activity Duration Estimating Activity duration estimating involves assessing the number of work periods likely to be needed to complete each identified activity. The person or group on the project team who is most familiar with the nature of a specific activity should make, or at least approve, the estimate.This will often require consideration of elapsed time as well.Outputs of Activity Duration Estimating:Activity Duration Estimates - Activity duration estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods that will be required to complete an activity. They should always include some indication of the range of possible results (2 weeks +/- 2 days, or 8 to 12 days).Basis of Estimates - Assumptions made in developing the estimates.Activity List Updates - Updates to the activity list as discovered.Discuss how activity duration estimating attempts to identify the amount of time it will take to accomplish an activity. Some activities’ duration’s are effected by different resource levels while others are not.Project managers should be aware of the effect that different resource levels will have on the duration of the activities.
144 Re-Roofing Project Duration Estimates Estimated durations (in hours) have been estimated for each activity. The example shown is utilizing Microsoft Project to record the tasks (activities), and durations.
145 Schedule DevelopmentSchedule development means determining start and finish dates for project activities. If the start and finish dates are not realistic, the project is unlikely to be finished as scheduled. The schedule development process must often be iterated.Outputs of Schedule Development:Project Schedule - The project schedule includes at least planned start and expected finish dates for each detail activity. (Note: the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed.)Supporting Detail - Supporting detail for the project schedule includes at least documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints.Schedule Management Plan - A schedule management plan defines how changes to the schedule will be managed. It may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed based on the needs of the project.Resource Requirement Updates - Resource leveling and activity list updates may have a significant effect on preliminary estimates of resource requirements.Discuss how schedule development takes the activities, their sequence and duration's to arrive at the project schedule.Project scheduling for medium to large projects is usually done on computer software such as Microsoft Project.
147 Group ExerciseCreate Project Network Diagram for the ILICO Construction Project ExerciseActivity ListProject Network DiagramPresent resultsProvide each group with blank transparencies and markers for completing the exerciseAllow 30 minutes for group to complete exercise (facilitators should constantly monitor groups for progress and to answer any questions they may have. Notice if the group is stuck and steer the group in the right direction without giving them the answers.Allow each group 10 minutes to present their results.Show teachers sample. Just pass out and let class keep.(use the teachers handout as knowledge transfer - class can use teachers handout as base line for future exercises and as reference material when they are managing real projects.)
148 Project Schedule - GANTT Chart The following is a depiction of a project schedule. Developed using Microsoft Project 98, this project schedule shows the activities, dependencies, durations and resources planned to accomplish the project objectives. This view is called a GAANT chart.
149 Project Plan Development We will be covering the core processes and not the facilitating processes.
150 Project Plan Development Project plan development uses the outputs of the other planning processes to create a consistent, coherent document that can be used to guide both project execution and project control. This process is almost always iterated several times. The project plan is used to:Guide project executionDocument project planning assumptionsDocument project planning decisions regarding alternatives chosenFacilitate communication among stakeholdersDefine key management reviews as to content, extent, and timingProvide a baseline for progress measurement and project controlOutputs of Project Plan Development:Project Plan - The project plan is a formal, approved document used to manage and control project execution. The final Project Charter with project schedule, organization, resources, budget and other attachments is ILICo’s project plan.Discuss how the project charter document is the guiding document for project plan execution and control.A project plan is more than just the schedule. It spells out how the project is organized; how and when activities will be conducted, and by who; and how the project will be managed.
151 ILICo’s Project Planning Processes Overview discussion of Indianapolis Life’s planning process and how it flows.
152 Wrap up with discussion of areas covered: Project Management OverviewProject Life Cycle (Concept - Define - Develop - Deliver)Five PMI PM Processes (Initiation, Planning, Controlling, Executing, Closing)Nine PMI PM Knowledge Areas (Scope, Time, Cost, Quality, HR, Communications, Risk, Procurement, Integration)Project InitiationILICo’s Project Initiation Form and ProcessProject PlanningScope Planning - ILICo’s Project CharterScope Definition - Work Breakdown StructuresProject Plan Development - Activity and Schedule DevelopmentILICo’s Project Charter is the project planning documentNext ClassControlling - Issues Management, Status Reporting, Scope ControlExecutingClosing Processes - Delivery Acceptance Agreements
153 Closing ExerciseObjective: To allow participants to discover (or reinforce) some principles of adult learning through “hands-on” activity.Procedure:Distribute eight copies of the number game to each participant. Ask them to place a blank sheet of paper over the numbers so they cannot see the placement of the numbers. Tell them this is a simple hand-eye coordination exercise in which they are to work as fast as they possibly can within a given time period. Then tell the participants to “remove the blank sheet of paper.. With pen or pencil, draw a line from #1 to #2, #3, etc., until I say ‘stop.’ OK? Go!”Allow 60 seconds; then say “Stop. Please circle the highest number you reach and jot down the number ‘1’ in the upper right hand corner.”Repeat this exact procedure for 6-7 more times, each time allowing 60 seconds. Make certain each sheet is numbered in sequence (#1, #2, #3, …)Discussion Questions:1. In all candor, how did you feel when you were going through the exercise? (Note: Responses will be “nervous,” “frustrated,” “upset,” “mad,” etc.)2. Practice makes perfect. If this is really true, we all should have shown a consistent increase in the number attained with each attempt. Is this true for each of you? If not, why?