9 Definitions A project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service” Project management is “the application of knowledge, skills tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project”
10 Characteristics of a Project Manager Communication skills Facilitation skills Leadership skills Organizational skills Negotiating skills Project Management Technical skills
11 Develop Concept Define Executing Processes Controlling Processes Deliver Plan developed for execution Plan is executed and Controlled As the execution is controlled, it may require additional planning Plan is successfully executed Plan and execution has been controlled Feedback in both directions Project or phase is approved in order to proceed Project Lifecycle
12 Scope Time Cost Risk Quality Human Resource Communications Procurement/Contract Project Integration 9 PMI PM Knowledge Areas
13 Triple Constraint As project managers, we are always trying to manage the constraints of product, schedule, and budget Schedule Budget Product … The “Triple Constraint”
14 The Concept Phase - Review Identified the Scope and Objectives Initiated the Project Analyzed Project Stakeholders Prepared High Level Estimates Created the Project Charter Did Initial Resource Planning
17 Design Documents Frequently specific design documents are necessary to guide the development of the project These design documents can specify physical products or logical (software) products The key to success is clear communication and understanding between customers and designers
19 Activity Definition Activity definition involves identifying and documenting the specific activities that must be performed in order to produce the deliverables and sub- deliverables identified in the work breakdown structure. Implicit in this process is the need to define the activities such that the project objectives will be met. Outputs of Activity Definition: –Activity List - The activity list must include all activities which will be performed on the project. It should be organized as an extension to the WBS. –Supporting Detail - Supporting detail for the activity list should be documented and organized as needed to facilitate its use by other project management processes. Supporting detail should always include documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints. –WBS Updates - In using the WBS to identify which activities are needed, the project team may identify missing deliverables or corrections to the WBS.
21 Activity Sequencing Activity sequencing involves identifying and documenting interactivity dependencies. Activities must be sequenced accurately in order to support later development of a realistic and achievable schedule. Outputs of Activity Sequencing: –Project Network Diagram - A project network diagram is a schematic display of the project’s activities and the logical relationships (dependencies) among them. –Activity List Updates - In much the same manner that the activity definition process may generate updates to the WBS, preparation of the project network diagram may reveal instances where an activity must be divided or otherwise redefined in order to diagram the correct logical relationships.
23 Activity Duration Estimating Activity duration estimating involves assessing the number of work periods likely to be needed to complete each identified activity. The person or group on the project team who is most familiar with the nature of a specific activity should make, or at least approve, the estimate. This will often require consideration of elapsed time as well. Outputs of Activity Duration Estimating: –Activity Duration Estimates - Activity duration estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods that will be required to complete an activity. They should always include some indication of the range of possible results (2 weeks +/- 2 days, or 8 to 12 days). –Basis of Estimates - Assumptions made in developing the estimates. –Activity List Updates - Updates to the activity list as discovered.
25 Schedule Development Schedule development means determining start and finish dates for project activities. If the start and finish dates are not realistic, the project is unlikely to be finished as scheduled. The schedule development process must often be iterated. Outputs of Schedule Development: –Project Schedule - The project schedule includes at least planned start and expected finish dates for each detail activity. (Note: the project schedule remains preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed.) –Supporting Detail - Supporting detail for the project schedule includes at least documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints. –Schedule Management Plan - A schedule management plan defines how changes to the schedule will be managed. It may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed based on the needs of the project. –Resource Requirement Updates - Resource leveling and activity list updates may have a significant effect on preliminary estimates of resource requirements.
30 Project Plan Development Project plan development uses the outputs of the other planning processes to create a consistent, coherent document that can be used to guide both project execution and project control. This process is almost always iterated several times. The project plan is used to: –Guide project execution –Document project planning assumptions –Document project planning decisions regarding alternatives chosen –Facilitate communication among stakeholders –Define key management reviews as to content, extent, and timing –Provide a baseline for progress measurement and project control Outputs of Project Plan Development: –Project Plan - The project plan is a formal, approved document used to manage and control project execution. The final Project Charter with project schedule, organization, resources, budget and other attachments is the project plan.
34 Determine Critical Path of Project Plan Critical Path - “The series of activities that determines the duration of a project. In a deterministic model, the critical path is usually defined as those activities with float less than or equal to a specified value, often zero. It is the longest path through the project. ” (PMBOK)
36 Early Start (ES) - “...the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of an activity (or project) can start, based on the network logic and any schedule constraints. Early start dates can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan.” (PMBOK) Early Finish (EF) - “...the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of an activity (or project) can finish, based on the network logic and any schedule constraints. Early finish dates can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan.” (PMBOK) Determining Critical Path - Key Terms
37 Late Start (LS) - “...the latest possible point in time that an activity may begin without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date).” (PMBOK) Late Finish (LF) - “...the latest possible point in time that an activity may be completed without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date).” (PMBOK) Total Float (TF) - “The amount of time that an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the project finish date. Float is a mathematical calculation, and can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan. Also called slack, total float, and path float.” (PMBOK) Determining Critical Path - Key Terms
38 Illustration of Terms Cooking a 20 pound turkey for Thanksgiving dinner Know turkey must be thawed by 1pm Thursday, Thanksgiving day Once turkey is thawed, must put in oven within 24 hours Two options to thaw turkey: –Thaw in refrigerator: 1 day for every 4 pounds (total of 5 days) –Thaw in cold water changed every 30 minutes: 30 minute minimum per pound (total of 10 hours)
39 Illustration of Terms Question- in order to have the turkey completely thawed by 1pm Thursday, what is the Early Start, Early Finish, Late Start, Late Finish, and Total Float?
40 Illustration of Terms Late Finish – know is 1pm Thanksgiving Day Late Start – minimum time to thaw is 10 hours so latest start is 3am Thanksgiving morning Early Finish – have 24 hours from time thawed to put in oven; early finish for thaw would be 1pm Wednesday Early Start – longest time to thaw is 5 days; early start would be 5 days prior to 1pm Wednesday or 1pm on the previous Friday Total Float – from 1pm Friday to 3am Thursday or 5 days and 14 hours
41 ES-EF/LS-LF Calculations ES = Previous ES + Previous duration EF = ES + task duration - 1 LF = previous LF - previous task duration (working backwards through the NLD) LS = LF - task duration +1 Total Float (TF) = ES - LS Critical Path = path where TF = 0
42 Baseline Project plan Baseline Project Plan - “The original approved plan (for a project, a work package, or an activity), plus or minus approved scope changes. Usually used with a modifier (e.g., cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline). ” (PMBOK) Not etched in stone Living document Understand purpose of what MS project is showing you Different types of baseline (schedule, cost)