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 Second great controlling system of the body  Body system that contains internal organs that secrete hormones.

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Presentation on theme: " Second great controlling system of the body  Body system that contains internal organs that secrete hormones."— Presentation transcript:


2  Second great controlling system of the body  Body system that contains internal organs that secrete hormones.

3  Slowly acting chemical messenger that is released into the blood

4  So glad you asked that question!  Target cells or target organs  Location where a given hormone affects

5  Hormones cause certain changes.  What are these changes?  Changes in plasma membrane permeability or electrical state  Synthesis of proteins or certain regulatory molecules (enzymes) in the cell.  Activation or inactivation of enzymes  Stimulation of mitosis

6  Hormones control all activities in the body  They alter or change functions of cell to get a response

7  Steroidal Hormones  Insoluble in water, carried in the blood and released near the vicinity of the target cell  Nonsteriodal hormones  Unable to enter target cells and instead bind to receptors situation on the target cell’s plasma membrane  Prostaglandins  act locally, affecting only the organ where they are produced

8  Negative feedback  The chief means of regulating blood levels of nearly all hormones  Triggered by some internal or external stimulus  Rising hormone levels inhibit further hormone release  In other words, a stimuli triggers hormone production… then that hormone may either stimulate or inhibit other hormones

9  Pituitary  Thyroid  Parathyroid  Adrenal  Pineal  Thymus  Pancreas  Gonads

10  Structure  Size of grape  Located at the base of the brain  Attached to the hypothalamus  2 parts  Anterior pituitary  Posterior pituitary  Function  Often called the “master gland” because of its great influence on the body organs

11  Prolactin (PRL)  Stimulates milk production in women after childbirth  Can affect sex hormone levels in men and women  Growth hormone (GH)  Stimulates growth in childhood  Important for maintaining healthy body composition  In adults, important for muscle mass, bone mass, and fat distribution  Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)  Stimulates production of cortisol (“stress hormone”) by adrenal gland. Helps maintain blood pressue and blood glucose levels

12  Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  Stimulates thyroid to produce thyroid hormones  Thyroid hormones – regulate metabolism, energy, growth, and development  Lutenizing homone (LH)  Regulates testosterone in men and estrogen in women  Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH)  Promotes sperm production in men  Stimulates ovaries to release eggs (ovulate) in women

13  Oxytocin  Causes milk letdown in nursing mothers and contractions during childbirth  Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)  Regulates water balance  If not secreted properly can lead to kidney problems and too much sodium

14  Structure  Small gland in back of neck  In front of trachea and below Adam’s apple  Function  Controls metabolism

15  Thyroxin  Increase rate at which cells release energy from carbs  Calcitonin  Regulates the blood concentration of calcium

16  Hypothyroidism  Stunted growth  Mental retardation  Sluggish  Weight gain in adults  Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease)  Restlessness  Weight loss  Anxiety  Can cause Goiter (enlarged thyroid)

17  Structure  Behind thyroid  Four tiny glands  Function  Help maintain calcium and phosphorus levels

18  Parathyroid hormone (PTH)  Takes calcium from bones to make it available in the blood

19  Hyperparathyroidism  Can be caused by a tumor  Increases PTH secretion  Bones soften  Too much calcium can cause kidney stones  Hypoparathyroidsm  Too little PTH  Too little calcium affects nervous system

20  Structure  2 organs… 1 located above each kidney  Function  Outer portion called adrenal cortex and are essential for life  Inner portion is the adrenal medulla and are not essential for life

21  Epinephrine & Norepinephrine  Increased heart rate, breathing rate, elevated blood pressure (fight or flight response to stress)

22  Aldosterone  Helps kidneys conserve sodium and excrete potassium, maintaining blood pressure  Cortisol  Keeps blood glucose stable  Adrenal Sex Hormones  Androgens (male) and estrogens (women)

23  Cushing’s Syndrome  Hypersecretion of cortisol  Blood glucose remains high, retains too much sodium, puffy skin, masculinzing effects in women  Addison’s Disease  Hyposecretion  Decreased blood sodium, dehydration, low blood pressure, increased skin pigmentation

24  Structure  Large gland behind stomach  Function  Helps body maintain healthy blood sugar levels  Contains islands of cells called islets of Langerhans which secrete glucagon and insulin

25  Glucagon  Stimulates liver to break down glycogen, raises blood sugar  Insulin  Decreases blood sugar concentrations, affects the uptake of glucose cells

26  Diabetes Mellitus  Results from an insulin deficiency, blood sugar rises and excess is excreted in the urine  Type I  Insulin dependent; often inherited immune disorder that destroys pancreatic cells  Type II  Can be controlled with diet and exercise  Hypoglycemia  Low blood sugar; can be caused by too much insulin

27  Located between the cerebral hemispheres  Secretes melatonin  Important for maintaining Circadian rhythums (light and dark activity)

28  Large in young children  Gradually shrinks with age  Secretes thymosins – important to immune function

29  Testes and ovaries  Testosterone, progesterone, estrogen

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