Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrate and its functional properties in food products"— Presentation transcript:
1 Carbohydrate and its functional properties in food products DRAFT ONLYCarbohydrate and its functional properties in food productsExtension
2 Learning objectivesTo understand the three main groups of carbohydrate, monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.To identify the different carbohydrate in foods, i.e. sugar, starch and fibre.To recognise the functional properties of carbohydrate in food.
3 Carbohydrate and its functional properties Carbohydrates cover a wide range of natural compounds, such a starches and sugars, which are all based on monosaccharides.All carbohydrates are compounds of the chemicals carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and have the general formula (CH2O)n,e.g. glucose (CH2O)6 = C6H12O6.
4 Carbohydrate and its functional properties Carbohydrates can be divided into three main groups:• monosaccharides;• disaccharides;• polysaccharides.
5 Monosaccharides These are the simplest carbohydrate molecules. The most commonly occurring monosaccharides in food are glucose, fructose and galactose.The formula for glucose is C6H12O6.
6 DisaccharidesThese are formed when two monosaccharide molecules join together with the elimination of one molecule of water.They have the general formula C12H22O11.Examples of disaccharides are:• sucrose (glucose and fructose);• lactose (glucose and galactose);• maltose (2 molecules of glucose).C6H12O C6H12O6 = C12H22O H2OGlucose Glucose = Maltose Water
7 PolysaccharidesPolysaccharides are made up of many monosaccharide molecules, joined together.They have the general formula (C6H10O5)n where ‘n’ is a large number.Examples of polysaccharides include:starch;glycogen;cellulose;pectin.
8 Carbohydrate in foodMany foods contain some carbohydrate but the amounts of sugars, starch and fibre differ.Sugars are naturally present in foods such as milk , fruits, vegetables and honey. In the UK, sugar beet and sugar cane are the most common sources of sugar. Honey, treacle and golden syrup are also popular.Starch is present in foods such aspotatoes, bread, rice and pasta.
9 Carbohydrate in foodFibre is present in whole grains, fruits and vegetables, especially the skin covering of seeds.It is a mixture of substances (mainly complex carbohydrates) which cannot be digested in the small intestine.Fibre, also known in the UK as non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), e.g. cellulose and pectin and guar gum is found in fruits, vegetables, beans and cereals.
10 Carbohydrate and its functional properties in food products Carbohydrates perform different functions in food products.They:help cause the colour change of bread, toast and bakery products;contribute to the chewiness, colour and sweet flavour of caramel;thicken products such as sauces and custards.
11 DextrinisationFoods which are baked, grilled or roasted undergo colour, odour and flavour changes. This is due to a reaction involving protein and a reducing sugar. These polymerise to form complex brown coloured compounds called dextrins. These compounds contribute to the colour and flavour of many foods such as toast, bread and croissants. This is known as non-enzymic browning (Maillard reaction).Parts of amino acid and sugar molecules in food combine, when heated, to form brown compounds which change it’s colour, odour and flavour.
12 CaramelisationWhen sucrose (sugar) is heated above its melting point it undergoes a physical change to produce caramel.This happens more readily without water, however syrups will caramelise with rapid heating.This process is used extensively in the production of confectionary. Overheating will cause the substance to become bitter and dark.
13 GelatinisationWhen starch is mixed with water and heated, the starch granules swell and eventually rupture, absorbing liquid which thickens the mixture.On cooling, if enough starch is used, a gel forms. This process is used in the production of blancmange.
14 Other characteristics FlavouringSugar, e.g. sucrose, may be used to flavour many products such as drinks, cakes, tomato sauce and confectionary. It supplies sweetness and mouth feel.PreservingSugar in high concentrations prevents the growth of micro-organism.It is used extensively in the production of jam, marmalade and some canned fruit. Sugar is an important ingredient in determining the shelf-life of a product.
15 Other characteristics JellingSome fruits, such as apples and blackcurrants, are rich sources of pectin. Pectin is used as a jelling agent in the production of jam.
16 Review of the learning objectives To understand the three main groups of carbohydrate, monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.To identify the different carbohydrate in foods, i.e. sugar, starch and fibre.To recognise the functional properties of carbohydrate in food.
17 For more information visit www.nutrition.org.uk www.foodafactoflife.org.uk