CARBOHYDRATES 60% of our food should come from carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates glucose provides energy for the brain and ½ of energy for muscles and tissues glycogen is stored glucose glucose is immediate energy glycogen is reserve energy
CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates give the body energy. They are the best source of fuel for the body. Carbohydrates also help to digest protein and fat. Carbohydrates give the body energy. They are the best source of fuel for the body. Carbohydrates also help to digest protein and fat.
Carbohydrates also play a vital part of the metabolism and oxidation of protein Carbs help feed the brain and nervous system and helps keep the body lean.
CARBOHYDRATES If we eat more carbohydrates than are needed for energy, the extra is stored in the liver or in the tissues as fat.
Carbohydrates all plant food Milk (LACTOSE) carbohydrates are not equal –simple carbohydrates –complex carbohydrates
Disaccharides pairs of the monosaccharides –glucose is always present –2 nd of the pair could be fructose, galactose or another glucose –taken apart by hydrolysis –put together by condensation –hydrolysis and condensation occur with all energy nutrients –maltose, sucrose, lactose
Simple Sugars Glucose or blood sugar is the basic source of energy for all living things. Sucrose or table sugar is made from sugar beets or sugar cane. Fructose is sugar found in fruit, honey and vegetables. Maltose is grain starch broken down into sugar. Lactose is milk sugar.
Complex Carbohydrates starches and fibers polysaccharides –chains of monosaccharides
Complex Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates supply longer lasting energy, as well as other nutrients and fiber that the body needs. They are a better choice.
Hydrolysis breaking a disaccharide –water molecule splits –occurs during digestion
Complex Carbohydrates polysaccharides –1.glycogen and 2.starch built entirely of glucose –3.fiber variety of monosaccharides and other carbohydrate derivatives
Glycogen limited in meat and not found in plants –not an important dietary source of carbohydrate BUT –all glucose is stored as glycogen –long chains allow for hydrolysis and release hydrolysis and release of energy of energy
Starches stored in plant cells body hydrolyzes plant starch to glucose
STARCHES Starch in the body breaks down simple sugars. The body has to break down all sugar and starch into glucose to use it.
Fiber structural parts of plants –found in all plant derived food bonds of fibers cannot be broken down during the digestive process –minimal or no energy available
Fiber types cellulose pectins lignins resistant starches –classified as fibers –escape digestion and absorption
Fiber Characteristics soluble fibers, viscous, fermentable –easily digested by bacteria in colon –associated with protection against heart disease and diabetes lower cholesterol and glucose levels –found in legumes and fruits
List the two types of fiber and the main functions they perform: