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CHAPTER 3 MATTER. Noyes Noyes Uniform ? Separated by physical means? yesNo Broken chemically?

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3 MATTER. Noyes Noyes Uniform ? Separated by physical means? yesNo Broken chemically?"— Presentation transcript:


2 Noyes Noyes Uniform ? Separated by physical means? yesNo Broken chemically?


4 HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURE Made up of more than one thing, not uniform throughout Two or more particles sitting next to each other Each piece retains its own properties Not chemically bonded Ex. Pizza; granite; sand/water


6 HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE A Solution Made up of two or more particles not chemically bonded together but uniform throughout True solutions cannot be filtered Ex. Air, salt water, brass, CuSO 4 (aq)

7 Steve Spangler- Oobleck on Ellen

8 TYPES OF SOLUTION SYSTEMS GAS – GAS…………………….air GAS – LIQUID…………………soda LIQUID – GAS…………………humid air LIQUID – LIQUID………………vinegar SOLID – LIQUID……………….Kool-aid SOLID-SOLID………………….alloys (brass) GAS –SOLID………..pop rocks

9 Parts of a Solution SOLUTE = the dissolved material (sugar) SOLVENT = the dissolving material (usually water) MOLARITY = way of measuring the concentration of a solution; the ratio between solute and solvent

10 SEPARATING A MIXTURE Filtration Magnet Picking out pieces Crystallization/Evaporation Chromatography Distillation- separate by boiling point

11 Distillation


13 Separation of Mixtures MovieMovie (mixtures and compounds)

14 PURE SUBSTANCE A homogenous material that is made of only one kind of particle that is uniform throughout

15 1. Element= substance composed of 1 kind of atom (smallest particle) –Cannot be broken down into simpler substances –91 Naturally occurring elements –Dmitri Mendeleev developed 1 st widely used periodic table

16 2. Compound= a substance composed of more than one type of atom chemically bonded together –Properties of the compound are different than the elements putting it together –MOLECULE= smallest particle of a compound (2 or more atoms)

17 COMPOUND VS. MIXTURE Made of one kind of particle (molecule) Molecules are chemically bonded Properties diff. than the elements Need a chem. rxn to separate Specific ratios (formula) Made of 2 or more particles Particles are physically sitting next to each other Properties of mixture similar to components Separate by physical means Ratio not important

18 Change Video

19 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Characteristics that can be observed w/out altering the identity of a material Describes the substance by itself

20 INTENSIVE PHYSICAL PROPERTY = a property not dependent on the amount of matter present Examples: density, temperature, color, conductivity, crystal shape, melting/boiling point, ductility(draw into wire), malleability (shape or pound)

21 EXTENSIVE PHYSICAL PROPERTY = a property that is dependent on the amount or how much of the matter is present Examples: length, width, mass, volume, heat

22 PHYSICAL CHANGES Substance remains the same after the change Change in property without change in identity Examples: cutting, crushing, change in state (evaporation, freeze, melt, etc.), dissolving, crystallizing, heating/cooling, grinding, pounding

23 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Properties that can be observed only when substances interact with each other Describes how something acts when another substance is around Alters identity in a chemical reaction Examples: ability of iron to rust, ability of wood to burn, reacts w/acid


25 CHEMICAL CHANGE Change one substance into a new substance with new properties Clues to a chemical change: Change in color Change in temperature Gives off gas Gives off light Change in odor Forms a precipitate (solid particles)




29 STATES OF MATTER SOLID- definite shape and volume; particles are tightly packed and moving slowly LIQUID- flows, definite volume, assumes shape of container, particles slide past each other GAS- flows, assumes shape and volume of container, moves rapidly, freely

30 LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS Matter cannot be created nor destroyed Mass reactants = mass products 2H 2 + O 2  2H 2 O 10.0 g 79.4g  ?g 89.4 g

31 LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS Joseph Proust Stated that regardless of the amount, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass Water is always 2:1 ratio

32 Percent by mass or % composition = mass of element mass of compoundX 100 Example Sucrose (sugar) 20 g sample C  8.4 g8.4/20 x 100 = 42% C H  1.3 g1.3/20 x 100 = 6.5% H O  10.3 g10.3/20 x 100 = 51.5% O

33 LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS John Dalton Found that compounds composed of same elements can occur in different ratios Relates the composition of 2 compounds composed of same element Example:H 2 OH 2 O 2 CuCl 2 CuCl

34 (Law of M.P. cont.) States: that when different compounds are formed by combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers

35 video

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