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Urinary System.

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Presentation on theme: "Urinary System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urinary System

2 Functions Maintains homeostasis in blood by: Regulating :
blood pressure by blood volume ion , e.g , K+, & 2+ blood by maintaining concentration of H+ & HCO3- Remove nitrogenous waste from metabolism, e.g. urea, , & creatinine recall: most ammonia (NH3) from amino acid converted into less toxic urea by liver Remove other compounds, e.g. hormones & excess vitamins must conserve nutrients, e.g. water, glucose, & amino acids

3 cv renal artery both branch off aorta
each artery blood to one kidney to be filtered also supplies blood to one kidney renal vein both join with posterior vena cava each vein filtered blood from one kidney, which contains substances reabsorbed during formation cv ureters: tubes that carry urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder urinary bladder: muscular sac that stores urine prior to urination when sac stretches to certain point, sends messages to to notify need to urinate urethra: tube that carries urine from urinary bladder to of body

4 Kidney organ that filters blood to remove wastes and regulates of blood plasma contains nephrons: functional unit of that forms urine

5 Parts of the Kidney Cortex
layer of kidneys (renal = kidneys, = outer layer) Renal medulla inner of kidneys has higher concentration than cortex because contains + and urea Renal pelvis inner chamber of kidneys, where urine from collecting ducts before entering

6 Urine Formation

7 Nephron Approximately one million per a kidney
Blood supply enters the in the renal artery and branches into capillaries Blood is filtered as it passes the capillaries where wastes (filtrate) is out as urine and nutrients are kept in the to be used throughout the body

8 Bowman’s Capsule Located at the “end” of the nephron
In the of the kidney Surrounds the (a knot of capillaries) Peritubular capillaries

9 Glomerulus - Pressure Filtration
blood from renal artery enters through afferent and exits through efferent efferent arteriole has smaller diameter than afferent arteriole, which pressure in glomerulus blood forces fluids & small dissolved in blood through pores in capillary walls from glomerulus into in Bowman’s capsule substances that: remain in capillaries: , , platelets, blood proteins (e.g. globulins), , & certain drugs (e.g. penicillin) enters filtrate: water, glucose, amino acids, ions (e.g. Na+, Cl–, H+, K+, & HCO3–), vitamins, & nitrogen waste (e.g. uric acid, urea, & NH3) filtrate from Bowman’s capsules enters tubular system, where substances exchange with blood in capillaries Filterate = Urine

10 Proximal Convoluted Tubule - Tubular (Selective) Reabsorption
In the of the kidney nutrients actively transported back into blood in capillaries, e.g. glucose & amino acids NOTE: all glucose from filtrate, but some glucose used for active transport less glucose in efferent arteriole than afferent arteriole Most ions (Na+) actively transported back into blood, which causes transport of negative ions (Cl– ) by diffusion and water by back into blood substances remaining in filtrate: water, Na+, –, & nitrogenous waste peritubular capillary proximal convoluted tubule

11 Loop of Henle: Tubular Reabsorption
as filtrate down descending limb, increasing solute concentration of renal causes water to diffuse out of filtrate by osmosis, i.e. becomes more concentrated as water content of filtrate decreases as it passes through descending limb permeable to water, but impermeable to ions as filtrate moves up ascending limb, Na+ actively out of filtrate, i.e becomes less concentrated ascending limb impermeable to water, which prevents water from diffusing back into filtrate by In renal medulla

12 Distal Convoluted Tubule - Tubular Secretion
Takes place in the renal cortex More Na+ actively reabsorbed from back into blood in peritubular capillaries, which causes more Cl– and water to move out Hormones, , creatinine, & excess K+ in blood actively transported from into filtrate for excretion Blood increased by secreting excess H+ into filtrate & HCO3– from filtrate

13 Collecting Duct - Tubular Excretion
Takes place in the renal medulla As moves through higher concentration gradient in renal medulla, water out by osmosis Some urea also diffuses out of the duct to contribute to the high solute concentration of the inner medulla Urine nephron merges in renal pelvis

14 pH Essentially, the kidneys are bicarbonate ions and excreting hydrogen ions as the blood a normal pH If the blood is acidic, H+ ions are excreted and HCO3- ion are reabsorbed into blood If the blood is basic, H+ ions are not excreted and HCO3- ions are not reabsorbed and are passed into the filterate

15 Pathway of Urine Pathway:
As the urine passes through the ducts, it is drained into the pelvis of the kidney, then the ureters and to the Stretch receptors signal internal sphincters to relax for urination Sphincters close the urethra until the urge becomes necessity (at approximately 600mL) voluntary (external) sphincters can be controlled to prevent urination until convenient Pathway: blood: artery afferent arteriole glomerulus efferent peritubular capillary network renal vein urine: renal pelvis in kidney ureter urinary bladder

16 Regulation

17 Salt Regulation by Kidneys
Blood volume, pressure, & salt concentration regulated by stimulating or inhibiting secretion of to control water content of blood

18 Aldosterone Is a that increases the blood volume by increasing reabsorption of Na+ ions at the distal tubule, which increases reabsorption of water by osmosis i.e. water by increasing Na+ in blood Produced and secreted by adrenal cortex (outer layer of glands, which sits above kidney) Secretion controlled by juxtaglomerular apparatus between afferent arteriole & distal convoluted tubule in nephron, which blood volume

19 II stimulates secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex
When juxtaglomerular apparatus detects blood flow caused by low blood volume, then stimulates of enzyme renin from kidneys that catalyzes production of angiotensin II from angiotensinogen II stimulates secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex NOTE: angiotensin II also causes blood vessels to constrict raising blood pressure

20 Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Is a hormone that increases water content of blood by increasing permeability of distal tubule and the collecting duct to increase reabsorption of water by i.e. conserves water by increasing urine concentration and volume of urine produced produced by & stored/secreted by posterior pituitary gland secretion controlled by hypothalamus & on solute concentration in blood, i.e. more water reabsorbed into blood plasma when water in blood decreases when in hypothalamus detect increased solute concentration in blood, stimulates secretion of ADH from posterior gland reabsorbing more water causes increased blood , which increases blood pressure & salt concentration hormone: compound secreted from cell that travels through circulatory system to affect cells in another part of body (acts as chemical messenger)

21 Water Regulation by Kidneys
The water content of the body can vary depending on various factors: water intake diarrhea vomiting sweating drinking alcohol (inhibits ADH production) This means that the body has too little water and needs to conserve it and sometimes too much water and needs to get rid of it. Most of the of water conservation takes place in the distal and collecting tubules of the nephrons under the control of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) If the contains too little water (indicating dehydration) then more ADH is released so that the kidneys can reabsorb more water, thereby decreasing urine volume and increasing urine concentration (urine color = dark yellow). If the blood too much water (indicating over-hydration) then less ADH is released into the blood stream so that the kidneys don`t reasborb as much water, increasing urine volume and urine concentration (urine colour = less yellow)


23 By the end of this section, you should be able to:
dentify and explain the functions of each of the following: identify and explain the functions of the following components of the nephron: – kidney – ureter – glomerulus – urethra – Bowman’s capsule – urinary bladder – afferent and efferent – renal cortex arterioles – renal medulla – peritubular capillary network – renal pelvis – proximal and distal – nephron convoluted tubules – collecting duct – loop of Henle

24 describe the production of urine with reference to the following terms:
– pressure filtration – selective reabsorption – reabsorption of water following an osmotic gradient – tubular excretion – metabolic waste (e.g., nitrogenous waste, urea, ammonia)

25 describe how the kidneys maintain blood pH
compare urea and glucose content of blood in the renal artery with that of the renal vein identify the source glands for antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone describe how the hypothalamus, posterior pituitary, ADH, and the nephron achieve homeostasis of water levels in the blood describe how the adrenal cortex, aldosterone, and the nephron achieve homeostasis of water and sodium levels in the blood

26 Mandatory Vocabulary antidiuretic hormone (ADH), adrenal cortex, afferent and efferent arterioles, aldosterone, ammonia, Bowman’s capsule, collecting duct, glomerulus, glucose, homeostasis, hypothalamus, kidney, loop of Henle, metabolic waste, nephron, nitrogenous waste, osmotic gradient, peritubular capillary network, pH, posterior pituitary, pressure filtration, proximal and distal convoluted tubules, reabsorption of water, renal artery, renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pelvis, renal vein, selective reabsorption, tubular excretion, urea, ureter, urethra, urinary bladder, urine

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