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THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM Premedical Biology.

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Presentation on theme: "THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM Premedical Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM Premedical Biology

2 Pair of kidneys Pair of urethers Urinary bladder Urethra


4 The urethers are tubes that carry urine from the pelvis of the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
The urinary bladder temporarily stores urine until it is released from the body. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. Controll by our will

5 Kidney The outer end of the urethra is controlled by a circular muscle called a sphincter Each kidney is composed of three sections: (renal) cortex, (renal) medulla (middle part) and (renal) pelvis.

6 The cortex is where the blood is filtered.
The medulla contains the collecting ducts which carry filtrate (filtered substances) to the pelvis. The pelvis is a hollow cavity where urine accumulates and drains into the urether.


8 Kidney nephrons are filtration units of the kidneys
essential part of the urinary system nephrons are filtration units of the kidneys normal kidney contains 800,000 to one million nephrons: renal corpuscle filter component renal tubule specialized for reabsorption and secretion


10 Renal corpuscle Renal corpuscle is composed of a glomerulus and Bowman's capsule The glomerulus is a capillary tuft, that receives blood supply from an afferent arteriole. The glomerular blood pressure provides the driving force for water and solutes to be filtered out into the space made by Bowman's capsule.

11 Renal Corpuscle

12 The Bowman’s capsule is a double-walled, cup-shaped structure
The Bowman’s capsule is a double-walled, cup-shaped structure. Blood is filtered through the glomerular wall into Bowman's capsule, passes into the efferent arteriole. visceral inner layer formed by podocytes parietal outer layer composed of a single layer of flat cells called simple squamous epithelium


14 Renal Corpuscle

15 Renal tubule The renal tubule contains the tubular fluid filtered through the glomerulus. After passing through the renal tubule, the filtrate continues to the collecting duct system, which is not part of the nephron.

16 Renal tubule The proximal tubule leads from the Bowman’s capsule to the Loop of Henle. The loop of Henle is a long loop which extends into the medulla. Descending limb of loop of Henle Ascending limb of loop of Henle The distal tubule connects the loop of Henle to the collecting duct.


18 Tubules

19 Function of Tubules Most of these functions concern the reabsorption and secretion of various solutes such as ions (sodium), carbohydrates (glucose), and amino acids (glutamate). Each segment of the nephron has highly specialized functions. reabsorption of glucose reabsorption of water reabsorption of salts reabsorption of urea

20 Collecting duct system
It participates in electrolyte and fluid balance through reabsorption and excretion The collecting duct system participates in the regulation of other electrolytes, including chloride, potassium, hydrogen ions, and bicarbonate. Aldosterone is a hormone that increases the reabsorption of sodium and water and the release (secretion) of potassium in the kidneys Antidiuretic hormone=Vasopressin is a peptide hormone that controls the reabsorption of molecules in the tubules of the kidneys by affecting the tissue's permeability. It plays a key role in homeostasis, and the regulation of water, glucose, and salts in the blood.

21 Reabsorption and excretion are processes regulated by the hormones aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone.

22 Kidney

23 Each renal artery branches into segmental arteries, dividing further into interlobar arteries.
The interlobar arteries then supply blood to the arcuate arteries that run through the boundary of the cortex and the medulla. Each arcuate artery supplies several interlobular arteries that feed into the afferent arterioles that supply the glomeruli


25 Functions are regulated by antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone, and parathyroid hormone
Serve homeostatic functions - the regulation of electrolytes and the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids Hormone secretion - produce hormones including calcitriol, renin, and erythropoietin Osmolarity is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per liter (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L). The osmolarity of a solution is usually expressed as Osm/L (pronounced "osmolar"), in the same way that the molarity of a solution is expressed as "M" (pronounced "molar"). Whereas molarity measures the number of moles of solute per unit volume of solution, osmolarity measures the number of osmoles of solute particles per unit volume of solution

26 Excretion of wastes - include the nitrogenous wastes urea (amonium) from protein catabolism, and uric acid from nucleic acid metabolism Acido-base homeostasis- the kidneys and lungs mainten pH around a relatively stable value. The kidneys contribute to acid-base homeostasis by regulating bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration

27 Osmolality regulation - Any significant rise or drop in plasma osmolality is detected by the hypothalamus, it is secreted antidiuretic hormone (ADH), resulting in water reabsorption by the kidney. Blood pressure regulation - changes in the delivery of sodium and chloride to the distal part of the nephron alter the kidney's secretion of the enzyme renin. renin - angiotensin – aldosteron system


29 Thank you for your attention
Campbell, Neil A., Reece, Jane B., Cain Michael L., Jackson, Robert B., Minorsky, Peter V., Biology, Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company, 1996 –2010.

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