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Excretory System Yummmmmm… Nephrons. Mind Maps Get into groups of 3-4 – use iPads to create a mindmap Get into groups of 3-4 – use iPads to create a mindmap.

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Presentation on theme: "Excretory System Yummmmmm… Nephrons. Mind Maps Get into groups of 3-4 – use iPads to create a mindmap Get into groups of 3-4 – use iPads to create a mindmap."— Presentation transcript:

1 Excretory System Yummmmmm… Nephrons

2 Mind Maps Get into groups of 3-4 – use iPads to create a mindmap Get into groups of 3-4 – use iPads to create a mindmap On iThoughtsHD create a mind map on thoughts, ideas, knowledge On iThoughtsHD create a mind map on thoughts, ideas, knowledge

3 Functions on the Urinary System Excretion of Metabolic Wastes Excretion of Metabolic Wastes Maintenance of water – salt balance Maintenance of water – salt balance Maintenance of acid – base balance Maintenance of acid – base balance Secretion of hormones Secretion of hormones

4 Excretion of Metabolic Wastes Excrete nitrogenous wastes Excrete nitrogenous wastes Urea is the primary nitrogenous waste Urea is the primary nitrogenous waste By product of nucleic acid breakdown By product of nucleic acid breakdown Liver releases ammonia (extremely toxic to cells) Liver releases ammonia (extremely toxic to cells) Forms with carbon dioxide to form urea Forms with carbon dioxide to form urea If too much uric acid is present in the blood, can precipitate causing crystal = gout If too much uric acid is present in the blood, can precipitate causing crystal = gout Others wastes include methane Others wastes include methane

5 Maintenance of Water-Salt Balance Blood volume is closely associated with the salt balance of the body Blood volume is closely associated with the salt balance of the body The greater amount of salt in the blood, the greater the blood volume, the greater the blood pressure The greater amount of salt in the blood, the greater the blood volume, the greater the blood pressure Kidneys are responsible for filtering the blood of appropriate ions (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride etc…) Kidneys are responsible for filtering the blood of appropriate ions (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride etc…)

6 Maintenance of Acid-Base Balance Kidneys monitor and maintain a pH of 7.4 Kidneys monitor and maintain a pH of 7.4 Excretes hydrogen ions Excretes hydrogen ions Reabsorbs bicarbonate ions Reabsorbs bicarbonate ions

7 Secretion of Hormones Assist in the endocrine function of the human body Assist in the endocrine function of the human body Releases rennin which stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands Releases rennin which stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands Promotes the reabsorption of Na+ ions from the kidney Promotes the reabsorption of Na+ ions from the kidney

8 Organs of the Urinary System Consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra Consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra Numbered off into groups 1-4, learn the specific function of the specific organ Numbered off into groups 1-4, learn the specific function of the specific organ Group 1: Kidney Group 2: Ureter Group 3: Urinary Bladder Group 4: Urethra Group 1: Kidney Group 2: Ureter Group 3: Urinary Bladder Group 4: Urethra 1 person is nominated to write brief description onto the board 1 person is nominated to write brief description onto the board

9 THE URINARY SYSTEM Wastes filtered from blood by kidneys. Wastes travel to bladder through ureters. Kidney cross section: Cortex: outer layer. Medulla: inner layer. Renal pelvis: hollow, central chamber.

10 Gross Anatomy of the Kidney Renal Cortex: outer granulated layer that dips down Renal Medulla: Consists of cone shaped tissues Renal Pelvis: Is a central space or cavity that is continuous with the ureters

11 NEPHRONS Multiple small tubes. Functional unit of kidneys. Afferent arterioles supply blood. Branch into capillary bed or glomerulus. Blood leaves glomerulus through efferent arterioles.

12 NEPHRONS CONTINUED Glomerulus surrounded by Bowman’s capsule. Urine carried through proximal tubule (lined with microvili) to the loop of Henle (lined with simple squamous epithelium) Urine continues to distal tubule (cuboidal epithelial cells) and into collecting ducts. Collecting ducts merge in renal pelvis and expel urine into ureters.

13 ANATOMY

14 Glomerular Filtration Rate Occurs when the blood enters the afferent arteriole and the glomerulus Occurs when the blood enters the afferent arteriole and the glomerulus Due to glomerular blood pressure, water and other small molecules move from blood into the filtrated urine Due to glomerular blood pressure, water and other small molecules move from blood into the filtrated urine

15 Glomerular Filtration Nephrons in kidney filter 180 liters of water per day,including a small amount of molecules such as glucose and ions Nephrons in kidney filter 180 liters of water per day,including a small amount of molecules such as glucose and ions SubstanceAmounted Filtered Amount ExcretedReabsorstion % Water180 L1.8 L99.0 Sodium630g3.2g99.5 Glucose180g0.0100 Urea54g3044

16 FILTRATION Individual nephrons have own blood supply. Blood moves through afferent arteriole into glomerulus. Glomerulus under high pressure. Solutes diffuse across glomerulus walls into Bowman’s capsule. Materials move from high pressure to low pressure.

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19 THE FILTRATE Not all blood components pass through capillary wall. Small molecules and ions pass through easily. E.g. Water, glucose, salts, amino acids. Large molecules and structures remain in blood. E.g. RBCs, platelets, proteins.

20 REABSORPTION Urine formation water intensive. Water and other important salts and molecules must be reabsorbed. Active and passive transport used. Na + transported across nephron cell membrane. Excess salts excreted in urine when threshold level reached.

21 REABSORPTION Glucose and amino acids actively transported back into blood. Some urea and uric acid is reabsorbed by this process.

22 SECRETION Movement of wastes into nephron. E.g. Nitrogenous wastes, surplus ions. Active transport. Mitochondria line distal tubule.

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24 WATER BALANCE Increased water intake → increased urine production. Increased exercise, decreased water intake → reduced urine production and concentrated urine.

25 ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH) Increases water reabsorption. Increases water reabsorption. More concentrated urine results. More concentrated urine results. Produced by nerve cells of hypothalamus and stored in pituitary gland. Produced by nerve cells of hypothalamus and stored in pituitary gland. Pituitary gland releases ADH into blood. Pituitary gland releases ADH into blood. Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus detect changes in body osmotic pressure. Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus detect changes in body osmotic pressure. Hypothalamus shrinks and sends nervous signals to pituitary gland. Hypothalamus shrinks and sends nervous signals to pituitary gland. ADH released into blood. ADH released into blood. Thirst. Thirst.

26 ADH ACTION ON NEPHRON All parts of nephron not always permeable to water. ADH makes upper section of distal tubule and collecting duct permeable to water. High concentration of NaCl in interstitial fluid draws water back into interstitial space.

27 ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH) ABSENTPRESENT

28 REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE Kidneys regulate blood pressure by controlling blood volume. Aldosterone produced in adrenal glands increases causing water reabsorption and increased blood volume.

29 RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN- ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM Blood pressure receptors near glomerulus detect drop in blood pressure. Renin released. Converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin. Blood vessels constrict. Also stimulates release of more aldosterone.


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