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Kelli J. Schutte William Jewell College Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 14th Edition Leadership 12-0 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "Kelli J. Schutte William Jewell College Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 14th Edition Leadership 12-0 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kelli J. Schutte William Jewell College Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 14th Edition Leadership 12-0 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

2 Chapter Learning Objectives  After studying this chapter, you should be able to: –Define leadership and contrast leadership and management. –Summarize the conclusions of trait theories of leadership. –Identify the central tenets and main limitations of behavioral theories. –Assess contingency theories of leadership by their level of support. –Compare and contrast charismatic and transformational leadership. – Define authentic leadership and show why effective leaders exemplify ethics and trust. –Demonstrate the role mentoring plays in our understanding of leadership. – Address challenges to the effectiveness of leadership. –Assess whether charismatic and transformational leadership generalize across cultures. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-1

3 What Is Leadership?  Leadership –The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals  Management –Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members  Both are necessary for organizational success Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-2

4 Trait Theories of Leadership  Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders  Not very useful until matched with the Big Five Personality Framework  Essential Leadership Traits –Extroversion –Conscientiousness –Openness –Emotional Intelligence (Qualified)  Traits can predict leadership, but they are better at predicting leader emergence than effectiveness. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-3

5 Behavioral Theories of Leadership  Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders  Differences between theories of leadership: –Trait theory: leadership is inherent, so we must identify the leader based on his or her traits –Behavioral theory: leadership is a skill set and can be taught to anyone, so we must identify the proper behaviors to teach potential leaders Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-4

6 Important Behavioral Studies Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-5 Initiating structure Consideration Ohio Employee-oriented Production- oriented Michigan

7 Contingency Theories  While trait and behavior theories do help us understand leadership, an important component is missing: the environment in which the leader exists  Contingency Theory adds this additional aspect to our understanding leadership effectiveness studies  Three key theories: –Fiedler’s Model –Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory –Path-Goal Theory Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-6

8 Fiedler Model  Effective group performance depends on the proper match between leadership style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control. –Assumes that leadership style (based on orientation revealed in LPC questionnaire) is fixed  Considers Three Situational Factors: –Leader-member relations: degree of confidence and trust in the leader –Task structure: degree of structure in the jobs –Position power: leader’s ability to hire, fire, and reward  For effective leadership: must change to a leader who fits the situation or change the situational variables to fit the current leader Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-7

9 Graphic Representation of Fiedler’s Model Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-8 E X H I B I T 12-2 Used to determine which type of leader to use in a given situation

10 Fiedler’s Cognitive Resource Theory  A refinement of Fiedler’s original model: –Focuses on stress as the enemy of rationality and creator of unfavorable conditions –A leader’s intelligence and experience influence his or her reaction to that stress  Research is supporting the theory. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-9 Stress Level Low High Intellectual Abilities Effective Ineffective Leader’s Experience Ineffective Effective

11 Assessment of Fiedler’s Model  Positives: –Considerable evidence supports the model, especially if the original eight situations are grouped into three Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall  Problems: –The logic behind the LPC scale is not well understood –LPC scores are not stable –Contingency variables are complex and hard to determine

12 Situational Leadership Theory  A model that focuses on follower “readiness” –Followers can accept or reject the leader –Effectiveness depends on the followers’ response to the leader’s actions –“Readiness” is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Ability to followWillingness to FollowLeadership Behavior UnableUnwillingGive clear and specific directions UnableWillingDisplay high task orientation AbleUnwillingUse a supportive and participatory style AbleWillingDoesn’t need to do much

13 House’s Path-Goal Theory  Builds from the Ohio State studies and the expectancy theory of motivation  The Theory: –Leaders provide followers with information, support, and resources to help them achieve their goals –Leaders help clarify the “path” to the worker’s goals –Leaders can display multiple leadership types  Four types of leaders: –Directive: focuses on the work to be done –Supportive: focuses on the well-being of the worker –Participative: consults with employees in decision making –Achievement-Oriented: sets challenging goals Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-12

14 Vroom and Yetton’s Leader-Participation Model  How a leader makes decisions is as important as what is decided  Premise: Situational variables interact with leadership attributes to impact the behavior of the leader. –Leader behaviors must adjust to the way tasks are structured in the organization. –This is a normative model that tells leaders how participative to be in their decision making of a decision tree Five leadership styles Twelve contingency variables Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall E X H I B I T 12-5

15 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory In Groups Members are similar to leader In the leader’s inner circle of communication Receives more time and attention from leader Gives greater responsibility and rewards Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Out Groups Managed by formal rules and policies Receive less of the leader’s attention / fewer exchanges More likely to retaliate against the organization

16 Charismatic Leadership  Charisma means gift in Greek Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Vision Personal Risk Sensitivity to Followers Unconventional Behavior

17 Charismatic Leadership How do charismatic leaders influence followers? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Articulate a Vision Create a Vision Statement Create a new set of Values Demonstrate the Vision

18 Transformational Leaders  Inspire followers to transcend their self-interests for the good of the organization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Contingent Reward Management by Exception (active) Management by Exception (passive) Laissez-Faire Transactional Idealized Influence Inspirational Motivation Intellectual Stimulation Individualized Consideration Transformational

19 Leadership Model Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Transaction Approaches Laissez-Faire Management by Exception Contingent Reward Transformational Approaches Individualized Consideration Intellectual Stimulation Inspirational Motivation Idealized Influence

20 Authentic Leaders Authentic leaders know who they are, what they believe in and value, and act upon those values and beliefs. Ethics and Leadership Leadership is not free from values. When we assess leadership, we must assess not just the goals themselves but also the means by which those goals are achieved. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-19

21 Trust and Leadership  Trust – a psychological state that exists when you agree to make yourself vulnerable to another because you have a positive expectation for how things are going to turn out. –Key attribute associated with leadership –Followers who trust their leader will align their actions and attitudes with the leader’s behaviors/requests Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Trust Desired Actions Desired Attitudes

22 How is Trust Developed? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Leadership Action: Integrity, Benevolence, Ability Trust Action: Risk Taking, Information Sharing, Group Effectiveness, and Productivity

23 Mentoring – Leading for the Future  Mentor: A senior employee who supports a less experienced employee. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Career Functions Helping the protégé gain skills and abilities Lobbying for the protégé to get better assignments Providing exposure to influential individuals in the organization Acting as a sounding board for ideas Psychological Functions Counseling the protégé to bolster his/her confidence Sharing personal experiences with the protégé Providing friendship and acceptance Acting as a role model

24 Finding and Creating Effective Leaders Selecting LeadersTraining Leaders Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-23

25 Global Implications  These leadership theories are primarily studied in English-speaking countries  GLOBE does have some country-specific insights –Brazilian teams prefer leaders who are high in consideration, participative, and have high LPC scores –French workers want a leader who is high on initiating structure and task-oriented –Egyptian employees value team-oriented, participative leadership, while keeping a high-power distance –Chinese workers may favor a moderately participative style  Leaders should take culture into account  The GLOBE Study Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

26 Summary and Managerial Implications Leadership is central to understanding group behavior as the leader provides the direction. Extroversion, conscientiousness, and openness all show consistent relationships to leadership. Behavioral approaches have narrowed leadership down into two usable dimensions. Need to take into account the situational variables, especially the impact of followers. Research on charismatic and transformational leadership has made major contributions to our understanding of leadership. Leaders must be seen as authentic and trustworthy. Investment must be made in the future through mentoring and training leaders Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

27 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


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