Department of Mathematics and Science Practicing Science What is Science?
Department of Mathematics and Science 1. Look/watch things with a purpose 2. Think ahead about what might happen 3. Use tools to make precise or specific information with numbers 4. Put things into definite categories by common properties 5. Use reasoning to draw conclusions 6. Describe and share information with others Process Skills: Observe Predict Measure Classify Infer Communicate Scientists at Work Scientists at Work Scientists at Work
Department of Mathematics and Science How do Scientists Make Observations? Scientists use their Five SensesFive Senses Sight - Looks Touch - Feels Hearing – Sounds when moving… Odor – Smells Tastes SAFETY FIRST!! Never taste anything or put anything in your mouth without permission! Qualitative Observations
Department of Mathematics and Science Scientists use measurement tools to make observations that involve numbers or quantities How do Scientists get precise or specific size information about objects?
What tools do scientists use to measure length or distance? ruler tape measure meter stick
What is Length? Length- is the distance between two points. How long is the screw in centimeters? It is 5.1 centimeters. Remember to measure to the smallest place value the tool allows and use decimals.
Measuring Length How many millimeters are in 1 centimeter? What is the length of the blue line in centimeters? _______cm What is the length of the blue line in millimeters? _______mm HINT: Measure to the smallest place value the tool allows – use decimals. The line is 3.2 cm and 132 mm. 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters Measure the length of one marker. How long is it? Measure the length of a crayon? How long is it?
Metric Units What are the metric units for measuring length or distance ? Units include the meter, centimeter and the millimeter. The basic unit of length in the metric system in the meter and is represented by a lowercase m. Metric Units 1 Kilometer (km) = 1000 meters 1 Meter = 100 Centimeters (cm) 1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters (mm) Click the image to watch a short video about the meter. Adapted from T. Trimpe 2008 http://sciencespot.net
Department of Mathematics and Science What tools do scientists use to measure mass? Balance & gram pieces Pan balance & gram pieces Triple Beam Balance Electronic balance
Metric Units What is mass? Mass is the amount of matter in an object. The base unit of mass in the metric system in the gram and is represented by g. Metric Units 1 Kilogram (km) = 1000 Grams (g) 1 Gram (g) = 1000 Milligrams (mg) Find the mass of a crayon? What is it? About 5 grams Click the image to watch a short video about mass. Adapted from T. Trimpe 2008 http://sciencespot.net/
Qualitative Observations Class Results Sight Touch Hearing Smell Quantitative Observations Mass Length Department of Mathematics and Science
What tools do scientists use to measure volume? Measuring cups Graduated cylinders Beakers Measuring spoons Rulers or meter sticks or tape measures
Metric Units What is volume? Volume is the amount of space an object takes up. The base unit of volume in the metric system in the liter and is represented by L or l. Metric Units 1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL) 1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cm 3 (or cc) = 1 gram (with water) *Which is larger? A. 1 liter or 1500 milliliters B. 200 milliliters or 1.2 liters Click the image to watch a short video about volume. / Adapted from T. Trimpe 2008 http://sciencespot.net
Measuring Volume Graduated cylinders are tools used to find the volume of liquids. Here’s how: Read the measurement based on the bottom of the meniscus or curve.* When using a real cylinder, make sure you are eye-level with the level of the water. What is the volume of water in the cylinder? *What causes the meniscus? 43 mL The liquid in the graduated cylinder generally tends to stick to the sides of the cylinder. That is why for water and similar liquids we read the bottom. Adapted from T. Trimpe 2008 http://sciencespot.net
Measuring Volume of Liquids What is the volume of liquid in each cylinder? 52 mL37 mL 22.5mL Adapted from T. Trimpe 2008 http://sciencespot.net
Measuring Volume of Solids 10 cm 9 cm 8 cm What tool can be used to measure the volume of an object with the shape of a rectangular prism? We can measure using a ruler and the formula: length ___ x width ___ x height ___ = ______ cm 3 What can be used to measure the volume of irregular shaped object (rock) ? water displacement using a graduated cylinder Amount of H 2 O with object = ______ About of H 2 O without object = ______ Difference = (rock) Volume = ______ Adapted from T. Trimpe 2008 http://sciencespot.net
What tools do scientists use to measure weight? Spring Scale Pan Scale
What is weight? Weight is the measure of the pull of gravity on an object. What units are used to measure weight? Newtons (N) and grams (g)
What tools do scientists use to measure temperature? Thermometers
What is temperature? Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is. It is the measure of the heat or thermal energy in a substance. It is the average speed of the particles in a substance.
Measuring Temperature There are two different scales we will use to measure temperature. Fahrenheit scale – water freezes at 32 0 and boils at 212 0 F Celsius (centigrade) scale- water freezes at 0 0 C and boils at 100 0 C Click on the hyperlink below for an Interactive Thermometer Interactive Thermometer
Department of Mathematics and Science Brain Check Quiz # 1 Measurement Tool 1.Ruler /Tape Measure 2.Balance 3.Spring Scale 4.Graduated cylinder 5.Thermometer Tool Use (Property Measured) A.Mass B.Temperature C.Length D.Weight E. Volume of a liquid
Department of Mathematics and Science Brain Check Quiz # 2 Measurement Tool 1.Ruler /Tape Measure 2.Balance 3.Spring Scale 4.Graduated Cylinder 5.Thermometer Metric Unit A.Centimeters B.Degrees Celsius C.Newtons D.Grams E.Milliliters Journal Entry: How does measurement help us learn about the world?
Scientists at Work: What do you see when you observe the apple? Write in your notebook. Look over the list you made. Are they all observations? Remember, observations use the senses to gather information. Is there anything on the list that is what you think or infer?
Department of Mathematics and Science Senses Observations Inferences Compare and Contrast Observation Inferences To infer is to use observations to reach a conclusion based on evidence. Opinion A personal belief that does not need proof. To observe is to look closely at something using any of the five senses and/or measurement tools.
Department of Mathematics and Science Observations versus Inferences Make 3 Observations Make 3 inferences
Scientists at Work: Write one observation, one inference and one opinion about what you see in the photo.
Department of Mathematics and Science Scientists at Work: Classify Objects Look at the shells in this photograph. What are some ways you could group them by their properties?
Department of Mathematics and Science Classify Objects 1. You and a partner get a set of objects. 2. Identify properties the objects share. 3. Organize them into categories (groups) by ways they are similar or related. 4. Take notes. 5. Show your objects placed in classification groups with another pair of students. 6. Ask them to infer how you classified the objects. 7. Together, try other ways to classify the objects. 8. Discuss when each method could be useful.
Department of Mathematics and Science Scientists Communicate in Many Ways Giving talks Sharing drawing Making posters Making charts or graphs Writing papers or articles Telephoning Emailing Texting Blogging Body Language Using Models Message boards List several ways to communicate.
Department of Mathematics and Science A.Putting things into definite categories by common properties B. Looking/watching things with a purpose C. Using reasoning to draw conclusions D. Describing and sharing information with others E. Thinking ahead about what might happen F. Using tools to make precise or specific information with numbers 1. Observing 2. Predicting 3. Measuring 4. Classifying 5. Inferring 6. Communicating Practicing Science Processes Match Up
Department of Mathematics and Science Brain Check Quiz # 3 1. Collecting information using the senses 2. To put thing in groups 3. Collecting information using measurement tools 4. The sharing of information 5. An idea or a conclusion based on an observation 6. The study of the natural world 7. A personal belief or judgment 8. Facts and information collected A. evidence B. science C. qualitative observations D. quantitative observations E. inference F. opinion G. classify H. communication
Department of Mathematics and Science Apply Concepts 1. Compare these two animals. List how they look similar and different. 2. Imagine you are on a camping trip. Upon waking up you notice a garbage can tipped over outside your cabin. Plastic bags are torn open. What could you infer? Give evidence for your claim.
Scientist Bio-Poem Line 1: List Scientist’s first name _____________ Line 2: Complete: Scientist who studies _____________ Line 3: List 3 adjectives that describe the scientist ____________ ___________ ____________ Line 4: Complete: Who works at ______________ Line 5: Complete: Who learned by _____________ Line 6: Complete: Who found that _____________ Line 7: Complete: Who would like to see _________ Line 8: List Scientist’s Last name ______________ Division of Mathematics and Science
Scientist Bio-Poem Sally Scientist who studied space Curious, hardworking, a ground breaker Who worked at NASA Who learned by studying aviation and engineering Who found that helping others is rewarding Who would like to see more females and minorities in the field of science Ride Division of Mathematics and Science