# What tools do scientists use to measure length or distance?

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What are some metric measurement tools that scientists use to make quantitative observations?

What tools do scientists use to measure length or distance?
ruler tape measure meter stick

What is Length? Length- is the distance between two points.
How long is the screw in centimeters? It is 5.1 centimeters. Remember to measure to the smallest place value the tool allows and use decimals.

Click the image to watch a short video about the meter.
Metric Units km m cm mm What are the metric units for measuring length or distance ? Units include the meter, centimeter and the millimeter. The basic unit of length in the metric system in the meter and is represented by a lowercase m. Metric Units 1 Kilometer (km) = 1000 meters 1 Meter = 100 Centimeters (cm) 1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters (mm) Click the image to watch a short video about the meter. Explore and Explain: Click to show the video on measuring length in metrically. Which is longer? A. 1 meter or 105 centimeters B. 4 kilometers or 4400 meters C. 12 centimeters or 102 millimeters D millimeters or 1 meter Adapted from T. Trimpe

1 centimeter = 10 millimeters
Measuring Length How many millimeters are in 1 centimeter? 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters What is the length of the line in centimeters? _______cm What is the length of the line in millimeters? _______mm What is the length of the line in centimeter? ________ HINT: Measure to the smallest place value the tool allows – use decimals. The line is 3.2 cm. Adapted from T. Trimpe

What tools do scientists use to measure volume?
Measuring cups Graduated cylinders Beakers Measuring spoons Rulers or meter sticks or tape measures

Click the image to watch a short video about volume.
kL Metric Units cL mL L What is volume? Volume is the amount of space an object takes up. The base unit of volume in the metric system in the liter and is represented by L or l. Metric Units 1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL) 1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cm3 (or cc) = 1 gram (with water) Click the image to watch a short video about volume. Which is larger? A. 1 liter or 1500 milliliters B. 200 milliliters or 1.2 liters / Adapted from T. Trimpe

Measuring Volume Graduated cylinders are tools used to find the volume of liquids. Here’s how: Read the measurement based on the bottom of the meniscus or curve.* When using a real cylinder, make sure you are eye-level with the level of the water. What is the volume of water in the cylinder? 43 mL *What causes the meniscus? The liquid in the graduated cylinder generally tends to stick to the sides of the cylinder. That is why for water and similar liquids we read the bottom. Adapted from T. Trimpe

Measuring Volume of Liquids
What is the volume of liquid in each cylinder? C A B 22.5mL 52 mL 37 mL Adapted from T. Trimpe

Measuring Volume of Solids
What tool can be used to measure the volume of an object with the shape of a rectangular prism? We can measure using a ruler and the formula: length ___ x width ___ x height ___ = ______ cm3 10 cm 9 cm 8 cm What can be used to measure the volume of irregular shaped object (rock) ? water displacement using a graduated cylinder Amount of H2O with object = ______ About of H2O without object = ______ Difference = (rock) Volume = ______ Adapted from T. Trimpe

What tools do scientists use to measure mass?
Balance & gram pieces Pan balance & gram pieces Triple Beam Balance Electronic balance

Metric Units g kg What is mass?
Mass is the amount of matter in an object. The base unit of mass in the metric system in the gram and is represented by g. Metric Units 1 Kilogram (km) = 1000 Grams (g) 1 Gram (g) = 1000 Milligrams (mg) Click the image to watch a short video about mass. Which is larger? A. 1 kilogram or 1500 grams B milligrams or 1 gram C. 12 milligrams or 12 kilograms D. 4 kilograms or 4500 grams Adapted from T. Trimpe

Measuring Mass – Triple-Beam Balance
A triple-beam balance can be used to find the mass of various objects. 1st – Place the object on the pan. 2nd – Slide the large weight to the right until the arm drops below the line. Move the rider back one groove. Make sure it “locks” into place. 3rd – Repeat this process with the top weight. When the arm moves below the line, back it up one groove. 4th – Slide the small weight on the front beam until the lines match up. 5th – Add the amounts on each beam to find the total mass to the nearest tenth of a gram. Adapted from T. Trimpe

Measuring Mass – Triple-Beam Balance
A triple-beam balance can be used to find the mass of various objects. The objects are placed on the pan and then you move the weights on the beams until you get the lines on the right-side of the scale to match up. Once you have it balanced , you add up the amounts on each beam to find the total mass. What would be the mass of the object measured in the picture? _______ + ______ + _______ = ________ g Adapted from T. Trimpe

What tools do scientists use to measure weight?
Spring Scale Pan Scale

What is weight? Weight is the measure of the pull of gravity on an object. What units are used to measure weight? Newtons (N) and grams (g)

How to use a spring scale
Hold the spring scale in one hand so that the hook is hanging downward. Be sure that you hold it high enough so you can see the scale clearly. Look at the center of the scale for the units the scale uses. It will be grams and /or Newtons. Check that round platform is set at zero (x) on the scale. Hook the object you are weighing onto the hook that hangs down from the scale. If there is a basket or pan suspended below the scale, place the object on the pan. Wait for the spring to stop moving up and down. Once it stops moving, look at the markings on the side of the scale and record the weight. On most scales it can be recorded in both grams and Newtons. X

to how many Newtons will they measure?
Look at the spring scale drawings below, up to how many Newtons will they measure? Each spring scale measures up to five Newtons (N). How many parts is each Newton divided into? ten parts How many Newtons? 0.7 N

What are these WEIGHT measurements?
B C 3.4 N N N

What tools do scientists use to measure temperature?
Thermometers

What is temperature? Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is. It is the measure of the heat or thermal energy in a substance. It is the average speed of the particles in a substance.

Measuring Temperature
There are two different scales we will use to measure temperature. Fahrenheit scale – water freezes at 320 and boils at 2120F Celsius (centigrade) scale- water freezes at 00C and boils at 1000C Click on the hyperlink below for an Interactive Thermometer

Brain Check Measurement Tool Metric Unit Ruler /Tape measure Balance
Spring Scale Graduated cylinder Thermometer Newtons Degrees Celsius Milliliters Grams Centimeters *How does measurement help us know about the world?

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