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Life in the Ocean. Three Groups of Marine Life Plankton – organisms that float near the ocean’s surface – mostly microscopic Plankton – organisms that.

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Presentation on theme: "Life in the Ocean. Three Groups of Marine Life Plankton – organisms that float near the ocean’s surface – mostly microscopic Plankton – organisms that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life in the Ocean

2 Three Groups of Marine Life Plankton – organisms that float near the ocean’s surface – mostly microscopic Plankton – organisms that float near the ocean’s surface – mostly microscopic –Phytoplankton: plantlike –Zooplankton: animal-like

3 Three Groups of Marine Life Nekton – free swimming organisms of the oceans (mammals, whales, dolphins, sea lions, fish). Nekton – free swimming organisms of the oceans (mammals, whales, dolphins, sea lions, fish). –Most abundant in surface water

4 Three Groups of Marine Life Benthos – organisms that live on the ocean floor in mud, sand & rock. Benthos – organisms that live on the ocean floor in mud, sand & rock. – crabs, sea stars, worms, coral, sponges, seaweed, clams

5 Benthic Environment The ecological zone of the ocean that includes the ocean floor and all the organisms that live on or in it The ecological zone of the ocean that includes the ocean floor and all the organisms that live on or in it Divided into different zones based on depth Divided into different zones based on depth –Intertidal –Sublittoral –Bathyal –Abyssal –Hadal

6 Intertidal Zone Located between the low- and high-tide limits Located between the low- and high-tide limits –Is covered with water twice a day as the tides change –The organisms that live in this zone must be able to breathe underwater and on land –Must be able to keep from being washed out with the tide. –Clams, oysters, barnacles, crabs, starfish, sea anemones

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8 Sublittoral Zone Begins at the low-tide limit and extends to the edge of the continental shelf Begins at the low-tide limit and extends to the edge of the continental shelf –Depths reach to 200 m –Temperature, water pressure, sunlight are fairly constant –Most animals stay in the upper 100 m to reach the sunlight

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10 Bathyal Zone Extends from edge of continental shelf to abyssal plain Extends from edge of continental shelf to abyssal plain –200 m – 4,000 m –Lack of sunlight = few plants –Animals include: sponges, brachiopods, sea stars, echinoids, octopuses

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12 Abyssal Zone Scientist know very little about this zone Scientist know very little about this zone –Very deep and dark –4,000 and below – can reach 6,000 m –Few animals/ no plants –Some crabs, sponges, worms, sea cucumbers –Live around hot-water vents & in extreme conditions

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14 Hadal Zone The deepest benthic zone The deepest benthic zone Consists of deepest ocean floor and trenches Consists of deepest ocean floor and trenches Less is known about this zone than the abyssal zone Less is known about this zone than the abyssal zone Few animals: a type of sponge, a few worms, a type of clam Few animals: a type of sponge, a few worms, a type of clam

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16 The Pelagic Environment The environmental zone that includes the entire volume of water in the ocean and the marine organisms that live above the ocean floor The environmental zone that includes the entire volume of water in the ocean and the marine organisms that live above the ocean floor Two major zones Two major zones –Neritic Zone –Oceanic Zone

17 Neritic Zone Includes the volume of water that covers the continental shelf Includes the volume of water that covers the continental shelf Warm, shallow zone Warm, shallow zone Largest concentration of marine life Largest concentration of marine life –Lots of sunlight –Lots of benthos to serve as food Fish, plankton and marine mammals Fish, plankton and marine mammals

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19 Oceanic Zone Includes the volume of water that covers the entire sea floor except for the continental shelf Includes the volume of water that covers the entire sea floor except for the continental shelf In deeper parts, the temperature is colder and the pressure is greater In deeper parts, the temperature is colder and the pressure is greater Organisms spread out more Organisms spread out more Some animals include giant squid, whales Some animals include giant squid, whales

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21 Resources mals.html mals.html mals.html mals.html


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