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5.2 Investigate A&P of digestive system

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Presentation on theme: "5.2 Investigate A&P of digestive system"— Presentation transcript:

1 5.2 Investigate A&P of digestive system

2 Objectives Label the major organs on a diagram of the digestive system
Identify at least three organs that are located in the mouth and aid in the initial breakdown of food Cite two functions of the salivary glands Describe how the gastric juices act on food in the stomach Explain how food is absorbed into the body by the villi in the small intestine List at least three functions of the large intestine List a t least four functions of the liver Explain how the pancreas helps digest foods Describe at least five diseases of the digestive system

3 Digestive or GI system Physical and chemical breakdown of food so that it can be taken into the bloodstream and used by body cells and tissues. Alimentary canal plus accessory organs

4 Alimentary canal Long, muscular tube that begins at the mouth and includes the mouth (oral cavity), pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.

5 Accessory organs Salivary glands Tongue Teeth Liver Gallbladder

6 Mouth Buccal cavity Receives food- then food is tasted, broken down physically by the teeth, lubricated and partially digested by saliva, and swallowed

7 Teeth Special structures in the mouth that physically break down food by chewing and grinding. mastication

8 Tongue Muscular organ that contains special receptors called taste buds Sweet, salty, sour, and bitter sensations Aids in chewing and swallowing

9 Hard palate Bony structure that forms the roof of the mouth and separates the mouth from the nasal cavity

10 Soft palate Behind the hard palate, separates the mouth from the nasopharynx Uvula- cone-shaped muscular structure, hangs from the middle of the soft palate Prevents food from entering the nasopharynx during swallowing

11 Salivary glands Three pairs- parotid, sublingual, and submandibular, produce saliva which lubricates the mouth during speech and chewing and moistens food so it can be swallowed easily. Contains an enzyme called salivary amylase which begins the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates or starches into sugars.

12 Pharynx Food chewed and mixed with saliva is called a bolus.
When swallowed the bolus enters the pharynx (throat). Carries both food and air. Food-esophagus Air-trachea During swallowing epiglottis closes over larynx to prevent bolus from entering respiratory tract.

13 Esophagus Muscular tube dorsal to trachea. Carries bolus to stomach.
Peristalsis- rhythmic , wavelike, involuntary movement of muscles

14 Stomach Enlarged part of alimentary canal. Receives food
Mucous membrane lining contains folds called rugae Rugae disappear as stomach fills and expands Cardiac sphincter- circular muscle between esophagus and stomach, closes after food enters to prevent food from going back up.

15 Stomach cont. Pyloric sphincter- circular muscle between stomach and small intestine, keeps food in stomach until food ready to enter small intestine. 2-4 hours Food converted into a semi fluid material , called chyme, by gastric juices produced by glands in stomach

16 Stomach cont. Gastric juices- HCL and enzymes
HCL kills bacteria, facilitates iron absorption, and activates the enzyme pepsin. Enzymes- lipases- starts the chemical breakdown of fats, and pepsin- starts protein digestion Infants- enzyme rennin aids in digestion of milk

17 Small Intestine Chyme enters from stomach
Coiled section of alimentary canal 20 ft length and 1 inch diameter Duodenum (first 9-10 inches)- bile from the gallbladder and liver and pancreatic juice from the pancreas enter this section through ducts or tubes.

18 Small Intestine Jejunum- 8 ft length- middle section
Ileum-final 12 ft connects with large intestine at the cecum. Circular muscle called ileocecal valve separates the ileum and cecum- prevents food from returning to ileum. Process of digestion completed in small intestine Products of digestion absorbed into bloodstream for use by cells

19 Small intestine- intestinal juices
Enzymes maltase, sucrase and lactase- breakdown sugars Enzymes- peptidases- complete digestion of proteins Enzyme Steapsin (lipase) aids in digestion of fat Bile from liver and gall bladder emulsifies (physically breaks down) fats.

20 Small intestine- intestinal juices
Pancreatic enzymes- amylase (acts on sugars), trypsin and cymotrypsin (acts on proteins), lipase or steapsin (acts on fats).

21 Small intestine After food digested, absorbed into bloodstream
Walls of intestine lined with fingerlike projections called villi. Villi contain blood capillaries and lacteals. Blood capillaries absorb digested nutrients and carry them to liver where they are stored or released into general circulation for use by body cells.

22 Small intestine Lacteals absorb most of digested fats and carry them to the thoracic duct in lymphatic system which releases them into circulatory system. When food completed passage through SI, only wastes, indigestible materials, and excess water remain

23 Large Intestine Final section of alimentary canal
5 ft long and 2 inch diameter

24 Functions Absorption of water and remaining nutrients
Storage of indigestible materials until eliminated Synthesis and absorption of some b-complex vitamins and vitamin K by bacteria present in intestine Transportation of the waste products out of the alimentary canal

25 Sections Cecum 1st Connects with ileum of small intestine
Contains a small projection called the vermiform appendix

26 Colon Ascending colon continues up on right side of body from cecum to lower part of liver Transverse colon extends across the abdomen, below liver and stomach but above small intestine Descending colon extends down the left side of the body Sigmoid colon Connects with descending colon S-shaped section that joins with the rectum

27 Rectum Final 6-8 inches Storage area for indigestibles or wastes
Narrow canal called the anal canal which opens at a hole called anus Fecal material or stool, the final waste product of digestive process, expelled through this opening

28 liver Largest gland in the body Accessory organ
Under diaphragm in upper right quadrant of abdomen

29 Functions Secretes bile Used to emulsify or physically break up fats
Makes fats water soluble, which is necessary for absorption Stores sugar in the form of glycogen glycogen is converted to glucose Released into the bloodstream when additional blood sugar is needed

30 Functions cont. Stores iron and certain vitamins
Produces heparin (prevents blood clotting) Produces blood proteins such as fibrinogen and prothrombin, which aid in clotting of the blood Produces cholesterol Detoxifies substances such as alcohol and pesticides, destroys bacteria that have been taken into the blood from the intestine

31 Gallbaldder Small muscular sac
Under liver attached to it by connective tissue Stores and concentrates bile (which it receives from liver) When bile needed in digestive tract to emulsify fats, it contracts and pushes the bile through the common bile duct into duodenum

32 Pancreas Fish-shaped organ located behind stomach
Produces pancreatic juices Juices enter duodenum through pancreatic duct Contain enzymes to digest food Pancreatic amylase to break down sugars Trypsin and chymotrypsin to break down prteins Lipase to act on fats

33 Pancreas cont. Produces insulin Secreted into the bloodstream
Regulates the metabolism or burning of carbohydrates to convert glucose to energy

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