Presentation on theme: "Unit 6.11. Responsible for the physical and chemical breakdown of food so that it can be taken into the bloodstream and used by body cells and tissues."— Presentation transcript:
Responsible for the physical and chemical breakdown of food so that it can be taken into the bloodstream and used by body cells and tissues. Also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) system.
The Alimentary Canal-a long muscular tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus. The Accessory organs-the salivary glands, tongue, teeth, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Used to taste Contain teeth to masticate Tongue-contains receptors called “taste buds” -Sweet, salt, sour, bitter Salivary glands-produce saliva to moisten food for easy swallowing
Pharynx (throat)-carries both air and food When you swallow food, throat muscles help the epiglottis close over the larynx (voicebox) so that food will travel into the stomach instead of the lungs.
The muscular tube behind the trachea Receives food from the pharynx and carries it to the stomach Relies on rhythmic “wave-like” involuntary movement of muscles called peristalisis which moves the food forward.
Receives food from the esophagus Contains a pyloric sphinctor that keeps food in until it moves to small intestine Food stay for about 1-4 hours then Food coverts to a semi fluid called “chyme” Contains hydrochloric acid which aids in killing bacteria, helps with iron absorption, and activates pepsin (protein digestion).
Chyme now enters the small intestine Coiled approx 20 feet long and 1 inch on diameter Divides into 3 sections: Duodenum, Jejunum, and the Ileum. Lined with “villi” which are finger-like projections that contain blood capillaries that absorb digestive nutrients
Final section of the alimentary canal Approx 5 feet and 2 inches in diameter Absorbs water and any remaining nutrients Stores indigestible materials and eliminates them Contains the appendix, cecum, colon, rectum, and anus. Colon divides into the ascending, transverse, descending, and the sigmoid to the rectum.
Liver largest gland of the body secretes bile so that it may break up fats into water soluble for absorption stores sugar (glycogen) stores iron and vitamins produces heparin-which prevents blood from clotting Detoxifies (makes it less harmful) alcohol Destroys bacteria that has been taken into the bloodstream from the intestine
Gallbladder Small sac under the liver Stores bile received from the liver Pushes bile into duodenum Pancreas Located behind the stomach Contains juices that are enzymes to digest food Breaks down sugars Produces insulin (regulates the burning of carbs to convert to glucose to energy).
FYI When you have diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use it properly, so the glucose builds up in your blood instead of moving into the cells. Too much glucose in the blood can lead to serious health problems. All people who have type 1 diabetes and some people who have type 2 diabetes need to take insulin to help control their blood sugar levels. The goal of taking insulin is to keep your blood sugar level in a normal range as much as possible so you'll stay healthy. Insulin can't be taken by mouth. It is usually taken with injections (shots).