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The Digestive System Explain the structure of the digestive system

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Presentation on theme: "The Digestive System Explain the structure of the digestive system"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Digestive System Explain the structure of the digestive system
Analyze the function of the digestive system Discuss the characteristics and treatment of common digestive disorders

2 Definitions Digestion- the process of changing complex solid foods into simpler soluble forms which can be absorbed by body cells Enzymes- chemical substances that promote chemical reactions in living things Alimentary Canal-digestive tract or gastrointestinal tract (GI Tract) A 30 ft. tube from mouth to anus.

3 Accessory Organs of Digestion:
Tongue Teeth Salivary Glands Pancreas Liver Gall Bladder

4 Functions of the Digestive System
Physical breakdown of food. Chemical digestion of food into the end products of fat, carbohydrates, and protein. Absorb nutrients into blood capillaries of the small intestines. Eliminate waste products of digestion.

5 Structure of Organs of Digestion
Mouth Food enters digestive system through mouth (buccal cavity) Inside mouth covered with mucous membrane Roof of mouth is HARD PALATE (bone) and soft palate UVULA- flap that hangs off soft palate-prevents food from going up the nose when you swallow.

6 Tongue Attached to floor of mouth Helps in chewing and swallowing
Made of skeletal muscle attached to four bones Papillae (taste buds) on the surface

7 Salivary Glands Three pairs of glands
PAROTID – largest salivary glands, they become inflamed during mumps Secrete saliva

8 Teeth Gingiva – gums, support and protect teeth
Mastication – chewing, teeth helps in mechanical digestion Deciduous teeth- baby teeth (#20) Adult mouth has 32 teeth.

9 Esophagus Muscular tube 10” long Connects pharynx and stomach

10 Stomach Upper part of abdominal cavity
CARDIAC SPHINCTER-circular layer of muscle, controls passage of food into stomach PYLORIC SPHINCTER- valve, regulates the entrance of food into duodenum RUGAE- mucous coat lining of stomach in folds when the stomach is empty Stomach had muscular coat that allows it to contract (peristalsis) and push food into the small intestine

11 Small Intestines DUODENUM- first segment, curves around pancreas, 12” long JEJUNUM- next section, 8 ft. long ILEUM- final portion, ft long ABSORPTION- in small intestine, digested food passes into bloodstream and on to body cells, indigestible passes on to large intestine

12 Accessory Organs of Digestion
Pancreas- located behind the stomach Exocrine function- secretes digestive enzymes Also has endocrine function

13 Liver Largest organ in the body
Located below the diaphragm, upper right quadrant Manufactures bile Connected to gallbladder and small intestine by ducts Functions: produce and store glucose in the form of GYCOGEN- Detoxify alcohol, drugs and other harmful substances Manufacture blood proteins Prepare urea from the breakdown of amino acids Store Vitamins A, D, and B complex

14 Test Your Gray Matter The middle segment of the small intestine is called the: What feather shaped organ secreted enzymes to digest food? A small muscular sac that secretes bile and is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity is the: Another word or synonym for the throat is: The part of the body that separates the mouth from the nasal cavity is the: The external opening of the large intestines is the : Food moves from the pharynx to the stomach by passing through the: Jejunum Pancreas Gallbladder Pharynx Hard Palate Anus Esophagus

15 The gland which secrete a watery fluid in the mouth are called:
The organ that is divided into 3 sections and is approximately 20 feet long is the : The blind sac attached to the cecum and having no known function is known as the: Salivary gland Small intestine Appendix

16 The purpose of maltase, sucrase and lactase is to:
The physical breakdown of food begins in the: The muscular organ that aids with chewing and swallowing of food is the What is the purpose of peristalsis? Which enzyme causes the INITIAL chemical breakdown of carbohydrates? A semisolid mixture of food and gastric juice in the stomach is called: Which part of the small intestine receives bile form the gallbladder and liver? Break down simple sugars Mouth Tongue To push food forward Ptyalin Chyme Duodenum

17 What organ detoxifies alcohol?
The muscle between the esophagus and the stomach that keeps food from going back up into the esophagus is the: What organ detoxifies alcohol? The process in which broken down food moves form the intestine into the blood and lymph is called: The wavelike motions of the intestines that move food along the digestive tract are called: Cardiac sphincter Liver Absorption Peristalsis

18 That’s All….. That’s All….. That’s All…..

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