Presentation on theme: "The Digestive System Explain the structure of the digestive system"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Digestive System Explain the structure of the digestive system Analyze the function of the digestive systemDiscuss the characteristics and treatment of common digestive disorders
2 DefinitionsDigestion- the process of changing complex solid foods into simpler soluble forms which can be absorbed by body cellsEnzymes- chemical substances that promote chemical reactions in living thingsAlimentary Canal-digestive tract or gastrointestinal tract (GI Tract) A 30 ft. tube from mouth to anus.
3 Accessory Organs of Digestion: TongueTeethSalivary GlandsPancreasLiverGall Bladder
4 Functions of the Digestive System Physical breakdown of food.Chemical digestion of food into the end products of fat, carbohydrates, and protein.Absorb nutrients into blood capillaries of the small intestines.Eliminate waste products of digestion.
5 Structure of Organs of Digestion MouthFood enters digestive system through mouth (buccal cavity)Inside mouth covered with mucous membraneRoof of mouth is HARD PALATE (bone) and soft palateUVULA- flap that hangs off soft palate-prevents food from going up the nose when you swallow.
6 Tongue Attached to floor of mouth Helps in chewing and swallowing Made of skeletal muscle attached to four bonesPapillae (taste buds) on the surface
7 Salivary Glands Three pairs of glands PAROTID – largest salivary glands, they become inflamed during mumpsSecrete saliva
8 Teeth Gingiva – gums, support and protect teeth Mastication – chewing, teeth helps in mechanical digestionDeciduous teeth- baby teeth (#20)Adult mouth has 32 teeth.
9 EsophagusMuscular tube 10” longConnects pharynx and stomach
10 Stomach Upper part of abdominal cavity CARDIAC SPHINCTER-circular layer of muscle, controls passage of food into stomachPYLORIC SPHINCTER- valve, regulates the entrance of food into duodenumRUGAE- mucous coat lining of stomach in folds when the stomach is emptyStomach had muscular coat that allows it to contract (peristalsis) and push food into the small intestine
11 Small IntestinesDUODENUM- first segment, curves around pancreas, 12” longJEJUNUM- next section, 8 ft. longILEUM- final portion, ft longABSORPTION- in small intestine, digested food passes into bloodstream and on to body cells, indigestible passes on to large intestine
12 Accessory Organs of Digestion Pancreas- located behind the stomachExocrine function- secretes digestive enzymesAlso has endocrine function
13 Liver Largest organ in the body Located below the diaphragm, upper right quadrantManufactures bileConnected to gallbladder and small intestine by ductsFunctions: produce and store glucose in the form of GYCOGEN-Detoxify alcohol, drugs and other harmful substancesManufacture blood proteinsPrepare urea from the breakdown of amino acidsStore Vitamins A, D, and B complex
14 Test Your Gray MatterThe middle segment of the small intestine is called the:What feather shaped organ secreted enzymes to digest food?A small muscular sac that secretes bile and is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity is the:Another word or synonym for the throat is:The part of the body that separates the mouth from the nasal cavity is the:The external opening of the large intestines is the :Food moves from the pharynx to the stomach by passing through the:JejunumPancreasGallbladderPharynxHard PalateAnusEsophagus
15 The gland which secrete a watery fluid in the mouth are called: The organ that is divided into 3 sections and is approximately 20 feet long is the :The blind sac attached to the cecum and having no known function is known as the:Salivary glandSmall intestineAppendix
16 The purpose of maltase, sucrase and lactase is to: The physical breakdown of food begins in the:The muscular organ that aids with chewing and swallowing of food is theWhat is the purpose of peristalsis?Which enzyme causes the INITIAL chemical breakdown of carbohydrates?A semisolid mixture of food and gastric juice in the stomach is called:Which part of the small intestine receives bile form the gallbladder and liver?Break down simple sugarsMouthTongueTo push food forwardPtyalinChymeDuodenum
17 What organ detoxifies alcohol? The muscle between the esophagus and the stomach that keeps food from going back up into the esophagus is the:What organ detoxifies alcohol?The process in which broken down food moves form the intestine into the blood and lymph is called:The wavelike motions of the intestines that move food along the digestive tract are called:Cardiac sphincterLiverAbsorptionPeristalsis