2DIGITIZATIONThe expression of an image, voice or scripture by using numbers is called digitization.The other definition is ‘ one analog document is being scanned by scanner after the process of OCR (optical character recognition) is to be adjusted to a readable and correctable form.’
4Why DigitizationThe protection of a material has intellectual or objective value,The becoming widespread of knowledge on the situations have high access willingness,It is protection-restoration due to prevent attrition of collections are used too much.
5What can be digitized?Paper-based information including text, graphics, pictures, maps, and photographsAudio materialsVideo materialsMoving pictures or FilmsMicroformsArt objects including other 3-D objects
6Making project of digitization Before starting to any digitization project, the questions must be answered related to positive, measurable and accessible aims, reasons, group of users, quality of material that will be digitized, the limits that will be practised on access, how will be distributed, what the rights of reproduction and useage will be and where will be stored.
7Which operation must be made as requirement Being Succesful of a Project Will Be Occured When Subjects Below Are Made ClearnessWhich operation must be made as requirementHow will be completed, ( which standarts, specialities and application will be used),Who will manage this operation,The duraiton of project,What will be about cost,
8Defining the phases of digitization project can be sorted as below
9I. SelectionWe can identificate suitable materials or selection of collection for digitization. Selection provides possility of correlation and evaluation between potential values of resources and necessities of user. The decision of selection is a kind of feasibility operation.
11II. Conversion/ Consitute After decision related to your materials are suitable for digitization operation as physically, according to circumstance of material, the most suitable digitization method is determined.
12The Standarts of Conversion/ Consitute The use of different conversion/consitute standarts according to aims of useage for every kind of materials is the most correct. The aims of use has been determined as 2 topics, these are:Archives/Prevention Quality: High Quality conversion is made for storage and protectionService Quality: High-reduced quality (output, edition, restoration and coordination)Distribution quality: reduced- quality ( output, restoration, development, fast and safe distirubution)
13III. Quality ControlQuality Control is the most important element of a digitization project. The expected quality must be realize in digitization. For realizing correct digitization:Environment conditions must be considered (light, heat etc.)Selection of correct hardware and software to examine the ımageThe controlers must be chosen from visual experts and their opinion must be considered.
15IV. MetadataThe creation of quality metadata is a key component for the responsible management and longterm preservation of the digital files produced by your project.Metadata is the term used to describe traditional descriptive cataloging applied to digital files in addition to information needed retrieve, access, and manage those files
17V.InfrastructureEveryone must be careful for plannig digital Infrastructure. Because it’s technology chances rapidly and ıt costs too much.
18InfrastructureInfrastructure of digitization projects becomes three main subject. These are :Hardware,SoftwareNetwork
19HardwareThe purchase of a scanner will have the greatest impact on quality of images for the majority of digitization projects. Recent developments have increased the challenges in selecting a quality scanner by increasing variety and availability while reducing the costs of equipment.
20HardwareThe number of sensors in the array determines the optical resolution of a particular device.The optical resolution is normally expressed in scanner specifications as “dots per inch” (DPI) or “pixels per inch” (PPI).
21HardwareAn important factor to consider for the most efficient projects is the speed that equipment can capture images and transmit them to the host computer.Higher scan speeds and transfer rates will reduce the exposure of sensitive materials to light, particularly when using digital scan-backs and cameras on a copy stand.
23SoftwareThere are three main program style is used in digitization process. These are:Scanner SoftwareImage Editing SoftwareDigital Asset Management
24Scanners SoftwaresThe last link between your hardware and your computer hardware is the software that controls the scanner or camera and passes information to computer storage or image editing software.
25Image Editing Software The function of scanner drivers and plug-ins offers a limited array of features for the manipulation of images.
26Digital Asset Management It is used for management of great amounts of digital materials. For this goal some programs should be used. The main goal of Digital Asset Management, is:To provide digital sources and to constitute enough archives for great amounts of digital materials.
27NetworksNetworks are probably the least visible portion of the technical infrastructure .Networks are probably the least visible portion of the technical infrastructure. Nothing can bring a digital imaging initiative to a halt faster than a network that is undersized, too slow, or unreliable.
28VI. Distribution/Presentation Digitization is made for preventing, distrubiting, reading, searching and make chances without any destruction on sources.
29VII. Storage and Preservation of Digital Images The significant resources institutions devote to the creation of digital collections has increased awareness of the need for careful planning for the storage and long-term preservation.File Naming Conventions and Storage
301 - File Naming Conventions Systematic file naming is important for system compatibility, interoperability, and to demonstrate ownership of the digital asset.General practice indicates using a convention with an eight-character file name with a three-character extension to accommodate different systems;
31Storage of Digital Images 1 - Optical Media StorageOptical media include CD-ROM (Compact Disc – Read Only Memory), CD-R (Compact Disc –Recordable), and DVD-ROM (Digital Versatile Disc – Read Only Memory). Optical discs are a popular medium for storing digital masters, transporting images, and as a publication medium.
32Storage of Digital Images 2. On-Line StoringStoring scanned images on “live” servers is an option for those wishing to archive highresolution TIFF images on a stable platform that offers sustainability and easy storage and retrieval.
33Problems in digitization Improper digitization process is a source of natural deterioration and damageImproper use of equipment and facilities can cause more damage than natural elementsDigitization without clear goals is at risk of failure