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Lesson 3: Working with Storage SystemsInternet and Computing Core Certification Guide Module A Computing Fundamentals Lesson 3: Working with Storage Systems storage systems hard disk drives optical drives portable or removable storage devices network drives remote storage Pg 11 This is the outline for the topics covered in this lesson. If possible, have examples of the different types of storage devices, including memory cards and other smaller types of devices not generally found on a standard computer system, e.g., DVD-RW drive, tape backup, etc. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 1
What Are Storage Systems?Internet and Computing Core Certification Guide Module A Computing Fundamentals What Are Storage Systems? RAM is temporary so you must save work to storage device Storage device you use depends on amount of storage you need and speed of data retrieval or data transfer rate Hard disk drives used most often to store and retrieve software programs and data Can use other media such as flash drive or optical disc for backup or portability purposes Pg 11 Objectives Storage systems came about as a result of the need to be able to store information on computers that previously required one 5.25” floppy disk to start the program and another for saving files. As the features of software programs advanced, so did the size of these programs and hence the need for a more practical way to store the programs (rather than constantly switching between multiple disks in the floppy drives), and the possibility of storing data files. How much history you want to provide will depend on the interests of your students. The older they are, the more questions they may have in regards to the floppy disk versus how a memory key/flash drive or CD/DVD works. Younger individuals may only refer to a flash drive or DVD media. There are many choices today and this lesson will look at these options. For most users, they will likely alternate between the hard drive and the CD drive. Other types of storage devices must be purchased separately and are only necessary for backup, security, or special requirements (e.g., video, music, etc.). © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 2
Working with Disk DrivesInternet and Computing Core Certification Guide Module A Computing Fundamentals Working with Disk Drives Disk drive performs three functions: Rotates disk at constant speed to access sectors on entire disk surface Moves read/write head across tracks on entire disk surface Reads data from disk and writes data to disk using read/write head Data from RAM written on disk arranged in tracks divided in sectors Process of preparing disk for use is called formatting Places special information on each track that marks location of each sector Pg 11 Objective Discuss how disk drives work. The concept will work the same for a flash drive or DVD even though it may not be as obvious to visualize with a flash drive. You may want to allude to or, if available, show how some flash drives provide a screen asking how the flash drive will be used, and if indicated for storage only, will prepare (format) that flash drive for that purpose. You might also want to provide a screen of how the sectors appear on a typical disk drive, and then discuss how data is saved, given that the disk is continuously spinning until the save command is recognized. Tracks Sectors © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc.
Working with Hard Disk DrivesInternet and Computing Core Certification Guide Module A Computing Fundamentals Working with Hard Disk Drives Primary storage area for both data and programs Software programs must be installed on hard drive Hard drive stores and retrieves information at high speeds Data transfer rate (throughput) of hard drive is function of hard drive rotation speed and number of heads per surface The higher the rotation speed and/or number of heads, the less time it takes to find data Range in capacity from 100 MB to 100+ GB Also used in network servers where drives very large to accommodate requirements of whole organization and data storage requirements Data transfer rate quite fast although can be restricted by type of network interface cards and number of users or tasks to be processed Pg 12 Objective Every computer/system today comes with a hard drive unless otherwise specified; the variation lies in the size and accompanying cost of the hard drive. Discuss the pros and cons of having a hard drive versus one of the other types of storage devices. Some students don’t understand why you would want to save every file you create; discuss this in terms of having an electronic copy in case it is ever needed in future, and after a period of time, can be deleted as required. NOTE: You may need to update the size of hard drives here, based on new and available technology at the time of your course. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 4
Working with Optical DrivesInternet and Computing Core Certification Guide Module A Computing Fundamentals Working with Optical Drives Designed to read flat, circular disc, commonly referred to as Compact Disc (CD) or Digital Versatile/Video Disc (DVD) Read by laser device or optical drive that spins disc at speeds from rpm or higher CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory) or DVD-ROM drive Similar to player in audio/video entertainment system Information written or burned onto surface and retrieved with laser beam Can only read data New computers come with at least one optical drive Usually DVD optical drive or CD/DVD optical writer drive. Pg 12 Objective Be prepared to discuss how the speeds of CD drives have increased steadily over the last few years and how DVD drives are standard on new computers. Most optical drives are able to write or burn discs. Provide an example of why you would do this, e.g., backup storage device for personal data. Have students practice how to hold a disk so they get a sense of how easy it is to get dirt on the disc, thereby making it “skip” as with vinyl records. Discuss the different speeds for drives, including those for writers. The next slide (and topic in the book) discusses this. You may be asked about the difference between DVD and Blu-ray. Both are optical discs with the Blu-ray designed to be the “newer or better” product as it can store high-definition video, video games as well as other data up to 25 GB per single layer and 50 GB per dual layer discs. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 5
Internet and Computing Core Certification GuideInternet and Computing Core Certification Guide Module A Computing Fundamentals Optical Writers Also known as burner drive, looks and acts like regular optical disc drive Software comes with optical writer drive to “burn” or write data onto a disc Formats of drives include: CD-R/ DVD-R: can write once only to blank disc, but disc can be read multiple times CD-RW/ DVD-RW: can read and write multiple times onto same disc DVD-RAM: similar to DVD-RW but can only be used on devices that support this format; usually in the form of cartridges Blank discs relatively inexpensive, with -R disks cheaper than -RW Size of disc can be 650 or 700 MB, while DVDs can be 4.7GB to 17+GB with rapid access speeds Special software needed to manipulate or edit video before burned to DVD Pg 12 DVD drives are relatively inexpensive compared to in the past; take note that not all drives work the same way or have the software to manage the write feature. As well, if the new system came with the software, there may not be discs to use if installation is needed again. When a new system asks you to create restore disks, this action should be taken, especially if you want the burner software. Alternatively, take note of the software so you can go to that vendor’s site to download (or purchase) the latest version. Discuss the issue of copyright here since most people relate DVDs to the movies they can buy (or rent) and then decide to make a copy of it for themselves. As with DVDs, the intent of the burner is to provide an avenue to put your own videos or home movies onto a media that can be read by multiple types of players. It was not meant to make copies of original works owned by other people. Be prepared to answer questions from your students who may want your opinion on the pros and cons of having a DVD drive on a computer versus having a dedicated DVD player, and how or when they might want to actually burn a DVD (may be a decision that can be delayed as costs come down and requirements change for people who have digital cameras or video cameras and want copies of those “home” movies). Questions may also come up in regards to which DVD burner to have installed on a computer. Be sure students understand the difference between CD-R and CD-RW drives, as well as CD types (when purchasing blank CDs). Blank “burn once” only (CD-R) CDs are cheaper than burn several times (CD-RW) blank CDs. There may also be a slight difference in price based on the amount of time or size for a blank CD, e.g., a 650Mb (74 min) blank CD will cost less than a 850Mb (80 min) blank CD. Explain that the Mb represents total size of data files that can be burned to a blank CD, whereas the Min represents the total playing time available when burning audio files to a CD. Be sure to bring up the topic of copyright when burning a CD of something other than personal data. You do not have to go into a lot of detail but do caution students that downloading a copy of an original work by someone else does not give them the right to do whatever they want with it. This is a good time to have an open discussion with students as to the different reasons why you might want to burn a CD, e.g., make backup copy of data, copy “home” videos onto CD for viewing on other computers, making the one legitimate backup copy of software you bought and registered for yourself (keeping original intact in safe place and using copy to run software), etc. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 6
Using Other Types of Storage DevicesInternet and Computing Core Certification Guide Module A Computing Fundamentals Using Other Types of Storage Devices Tape drive or tape streamer uses cartridge with magnetic tape Generally used to back up large amount of data Use different formats, with tape sizes ranging from 250MB to over 80GB Other tape drives use Digital Audio Tape (DAT) format Zip drive similar to DVD-RAM drive except that disk can hold between 100MB and 750MB data Offers relatively inexpensive storage option Newer systems not compatible with original 100MB devices Removable media systems can include flash memory cards, sticks or USB flash key/thumb drives, or external hard drives Benefits include portability, large storage size, and data-sharing capability Pg 13 Objectives Discuss how these types of storage devices are generally external, but may be installed in the existing CPU. The difference is the size of the disk or tape being used to store the data. There should no favorites between the storage drive types as much as the benefit of each one for specific needs. For instance, a small company may choose to use a tape drive to back up the company data as the size of their data does not require a more expensive system. At the same time, it also excludes the use of flash drives as the company has a policy where no data can leave the office premises. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 7
Using Other Types of Storage DevicesInternet and Computing Core Certification Guide Module A Computing Fundamentals Using Other Types of Storage Devices Hard drives in network server similar to hard disk drives in computer Traditionally much larger than available with desktop computer May be set as disk array, as drives usually organized to work together Remote or virtual storage systems do not exist on your computer or location Common service provided by Internet Service Providers (ISP) Drives on network or dedicated server at particular site Must login to with secure ID and password to access information Very useful for off-site backup storage of data, or as “central system” for people in multiple locations to share information Disadvantage can be speed of Internet connection Pg 13-14 Objective How much discussion you have with students regarding how disk drives are set up on a server should be determined by the interest of the students. Most people will not need this information, although you can allude to the fact that Microsoft has a number of certifications that target this type of information for those students who may want more information for how computers or networks are set up. Provide examples of how remote or virtual storage systems can be advantageous to someone, e.g., obtaining from any locale, sharing data with others such as pictures of family reunions or events, etc. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc. © CCI Learning Solutions Inc.
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