4 Intercultural failures Unaware of the key features and biases of our own cultureFeeling threatened or uneasy when interactingUnable to understand or explain behaviourUnable to transfer knowledgeNot recognizing when own culture affects behaviour.Unable to adjust to living and working in another culture.Being unaware of the key features and biases of our own culture – not being able to see the forest because we are inside it!Feeling threatened or uneasy when interacting with people who are culturally different.Being unable to understand or explain the behaviour of others who are culturally different.Being unable to transfer knowledge about one culture to another culture.Not recognizing when our own cultural orientation is influencing our behaviour.Being unable to adjust to living and working in another culture
5 Be able to improve their Cultural Intelligence Workshop ObjectivesBy the end of the workshop, participants will:be aware of how national, organizational and individual cultural values influence attitudes and behaviourunderstand more about other culturesdevelop culturally appropriate strategies for dealing with cultural differences in business customs, management styles and social protocolsdevelop tools to be more effective in an intercultural environmentBe able to improve their Cultural IntelligenceIn short, to make you more flexible intercultural co-worker
6 Today’s Workshop Perceptions What is culture? Explore U.S. (and some other) cultural valuesCultural DimensionsCultural ContrastsQuizAmerican StereotypesCultural EncounterNative English Speaker Activity
9 What image to you first see ? Perception = Selection, Organisation, Interpretation
10 Perceptions – what is written? PARISin thethe spring
11 Perceptions/Assumptions The result of our many different culture standpoints means that:‘Pure’ communication is impossible,Much of our communication is unconscious.We expect to see what we expect to see.The result of our many different culture standpoints means that:‘Pure’ communication is impossible, as we all bring prior associations to the communication process.We communicate in many ways, and much of our communication is unconscious.We expect to see what we expect to see. We don’t see what we don’t expect to see.We all perceive things differently. Our perceptions are filtered through our culture.Our life experiences teach us to perceive the world in certain ways.Perceptions are learned, selective, culturally determined, consistent and often inaccurate.Culture is an important factor in perceptions. A culture creates a common way of looking at things and determines what facts are important.
12 Perceptions/Assumptions - Summary WE create the reality upon which our communication is based. We bring prior assumptions and associations, many of which are culturally based, to the process of communication. We can never assume that the assumptions we operate under are the same for everyone, particularly when we are engaged in cross-cultural communication.The result of our many different culture standpoints means that:‘Pure’ communication is impossible, as we all bring prior associations to the communication process.We communicate in many ways, and much of our communication is unconscious.We expect to see what we expect to see. We don’t see what we don’t expect to see.We all perceive things differently. Our perceptions our filtered through our culture.Our life experiences teach us to perceive the world in certain ways.Perceptions are learned, selective, culturally determined, consistent and often inaccurate.Culture is an important factor in perceptions. A culture creates a common way of looking at things and determines what facts are important.
13 Challenges of working across cultures What is normal to us may not be normal to other cultures!We make assumptions based on our own set of rules –Yet they are often different from other people’s rules.The use of handkerchiefs, when ‘clearing’ your nose
14 What is culture? What is culture? In your groups, brainstorm what culture means to you.
15 What is culture? Some modern definitions: “Culture is the deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an organization, that operate unconsciously and define in a basic ‘taken for granted’ fashion an organization's view of its self and its environment.”( Edgar Schein)“Culture is an integrated system of learned behavior patterns that are characteristic of the members of any given society. Culture refers to the total way of life for a particular group of people. It includes everything that a group of people thinks, says, does and makes its customs, language, material artifacts and shared systems of attitudes and feelings. Culture is learned and transmitted from generation to generation.” (Robert Kohls)“Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another.” (Geert Hofstede)Schein Professor of Management at MITDr Robert Kohls director of International Programmes San Francisco State UniversityGeert Hofstede Pioneer in ICC
16 The Iceberg Model Behaviours Five Senses Philosophies Convictions ViewpointsOpinionsValuesAttitudes
17 The Iceberg Model Art & Literature Eye contact Emotions Sports GesturesClothingMusicLanguageLeisure ActivitiesImportance of face, harmonyHow the individual fits into societyNotions of TimeImportance of workCommunication stylesAttitudes about men’s/women’s rolesTolerance for changeBeliefs about human naturePreference for thinking stylelinear or systematicRules about relationships
18 Characteristics of Culture Culture is sharedCulture is learned/acquired and enduringCulture is a powerful influence on behaviourCulture is systematic and organizedCulture is largely invisibleCulture may be ‘tight’ or ‘loose’Examples: NL: at National festive activities special colour codead. 3 : so-called directness (rudeness?) of the Dutch
19 What are US cultural values Form small groups and brainstorm what you consider to be US cultural values.
20 Cultural Dimensions Equality – Hierarchy Direct – Indirect Individual – GroupTask – RelationshipRisk – CautionTime
21 Attitude to Equality/Hierarchy A cultural style that is based on equality means people prefer to:A cultural style that is based on hierarchy means people prefer to:- be self directed- take direction from above- have flexibility in the roles they play in ateam- have strong limitations about appropriate behaviour for certain roles- have the freedom to challenge theopinion of those in power- respect and not challenge the opinions of those in power because of their status and position- make exceptions, be flexible- enforce regulations- treat men and women in the same way- expect men and women to behave and be treated differentlyYou may see the ‘equality’ cultural style for the greater part in the USA, Canada, but where does e.g. The Netherlands or Belgium and France fit in for that matter? (see next slide)Source: Peterson
22 Attitude to Equality/Hierarchy Denmark Norway UK Germany Netherlands Canada USA Italy Spain Greece Portugal Belgium Turkey FranceHierarchySource: Hofstede
23 Attitude to Direct/Indirect A direct cultural style means people prefer to:An indirect cultural style means people prefer to:- be more direct in speaking and be less concerned about how something is said- focus not just on what is said, but how itis said- openly confront issues or difficulties- discreetly avoid difficult or contentiousissues- communicate concerns straight forwardly- express concerns tactfully- express views or opinions in a frankmanner- avoid conflict if at all possible- say things clearly, not leaving much opento interpretation- count on the listener to interpret meaningThose cultures that are more direct, often come across as being rude! See next slide for the position of the various countriesSource: Peterson
24 Attitude to Direct/Indirect USACanadaNetherlandsGermanyDenmarkNorway UKBelgiumHungaryItalySpainPortugalGreeceTurkeyIndirectSource: Hofstede
25 Attitude to Individual/Group An individual cultural style means people prefer to:A group cultural style means people prefer to:- take individual initiative- act cooperatively and establish groupgoals- use personal guidelines in personal situations- standardize guidelines- focus on themselves- make loyalty to friends a high priority- judge people based on individual traits- determine their identity through group affiliation- make decisions individually- make decisions as a group- put individuals before the team- put the team or group before theindividual- be nonconformists when necessary- conform to social norms- move in and out of groups as needed or desired- keep group membership for lifeSource: Peterson
26 Attitude to Individual/Group USAUKCanadaNetherlandsItalyBelgiumDenmarkFranceNorwayGermanyHungarySpainTurkeyGreecePortugalGroupSource: Hofstede
27 Attitude to Task/Relationship A task cultural style means people prefer to:A relationship cultural style means people prefer to:- define people based on what they do- define people based on who they are- move straight to business, relationships comelater- establish comfortable relationships and a sense of mutual trust before getting down to business- keep most relationships with co-workers impersonal- have personal relationships with co- workers- sacrifice leisure time and time with family infavour of work- sacrifice work in favour of leisure time and time with family- get to know co-workers and colleaguesquickly but usually superficially- get to know co-workers and colleagues slowly and in depth- use largely impersonal selection criteria inhiring (such as CVs and test scores)- use largely personal selection criteria(such as family connections) when hiring- allow work to overlap with personal time- not allow work to impinge on personal lifeSource: Peterson
28 Attitude to Task/Relationship USADenmarkNetherlandsUKCanadaNorwayGermanyBelgiumItalyGreeceHungarySpainPortugalTurkeyRelationshipSource: Hofstede
29 Attitude to Risk/Caution A risk cultural style means people prefer to:A cautious cultural style means people prefer to:- make decisions quickly with littleinformation- collect considerable information before making a decision- focus on present and future- focus on the past- be less cautious – in a “ready, aim, fire way”- be more cautions – in a “ready, aim fire way”- change quickly without fear of risk- change slowly and avoid risks- try new and innovative ways of doingthings- refer to past precedents of does and doesn’t work- use new methods for solving ,problems- stick to proven methods for solving problems- have fewer rules, regulations, guidelinesand directions- want more rules, regulations, guidelines- be comfortable changing plans at the lastminute- not change plans at the last minuteSource: Peterson
30 Attitude to Risk/Caution DenmarkUKUSACanadaNorwayNetherlandsGermanyItalyTurkeySpainFranceBelgiumHungaryPortugalGreeceCautionSource: Hofstede
31 Attitude to Time Flexible With Time Strict Linear Time Tasks need to be given strict time periodsTime is spent on interaction with people as well as on task accomplishmentTake time commitments seriously (e.g. deadlines, schedules)Deadlines can be negotiablePreference for scheduling one thing at a timeComfortable doing many things at onceNo interruptionsInterruptions acceptedQuick paceTime is not always the prioritySource: Hall
32 Attitude to Time Strict Linear Time Flexible With Time North America Western EuropeScandinaviaHungaryMediterraneanCountriesFlexibleWith TimeSource: Hall
33 Origin of Cultural Contrasts Form a pair with another student you don’t know very well.Identify which statement is closest to US culture.Identify which value from the “Value Contrasts” handout its selected sentence might represent.Speculate as to what factors, historically, might have contributed to the formation of the identified value in American culture.
34 QuizIn your groupsCreate 3 questions (2 Multiple choice and 1 open Q) about the content of the lecture
35 American StereotypesIn small groups, brainstorm what kind of stereotypes you think foreigners have of Americans.Furthermore, think of at least three stereotypes you have heard of related to European nationalitites.
36 Culturally Intelligent Leader The global leader of today and tomorrow must learn to be:flexible enough to adapt with knowledgesensitive to each new cultural situation thatthey faceDo you think you are heading in that direction ?What do you think of Mrs Hilary Clinton’s cross-cultural leadership style?Or that of President Obama ?
37 Is that it? Royal Regards, Wishing you a great ‘Spirit of Europe’ experience
38 Native English Speaker Activity Read pp.22 – 24 in the ‘Intercultural awareness’DocumentFigure out the linguistic mistakes in the ‘howlers’ on pp Try to rephrase at least 6 of them in such a way that it is understandable for people from various linguistic and cultural backgrounds.Fill in the ‘cultural Intelligence checklist’ on p. 29
39 Which culture(s) can you perceive in this picture ?