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Zuyd University for Applied Sciences 23 May 2011 10-12 a.m. Br.3.02 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Zuyd University for Applied Sciences 23 May 2011 10-12 a.m. Br.3.02 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Zuyd University for Applied Sciences 23 May a.m. Br

2 Theresa M.J. Snyders Cross-Cultural communication Lecturer 2

3 Welcome to the Kingdom of The Netherlands 3

4 Intercultural failures Unaware of the key features and biases of our own culture Feeling threatened or uneasy when interacting Unable to understand or explain behaviour Unable to transfer knowledge Not recognizing when own culture affects behaviour. Unable to adjust to living and working in another culture. 4

5 Workshop Objectives By the end of the workshop, participants will: be aware of how national, organizational and individual cultural values influence attitudes and behaviour understand more about other cultures develop culturally appropriate strategies for dealing with cultural differences in business customs, management styles and social protocols develop tools to be more effective in an intercultural environment Be able to improve their Cultural Intelligence 5

6 Todays Workshop Perceptions What is culture? Explore U.S. (and some other) cultural values Cultural Dimensions Cultural Contrasts Quiz American Stereotypes Cultural Encounter Native English Speaker Activity 6

7 Perceptions – what do you see? 7

8 8

9 What image to you first see ? 9

10 Perceptions – what is written? PARIS in the the spring 10

11 Perceptions/Assumptions The result of our many different culture standpoints means that: Pure communication is impossible, Much of our communication is unconscious. We expect to see what we expect to see. 11

12 Perceptions/Assumptions - Summary WE create the reality upon which our communication is based. We bring prior assumptions and associations, many of which are culturally based, to the process of communication. We can never assume that the assumptions we operate under are the same for everyone, particularly when we are engaged in cross-cultural communication. 12

13 Challenges of working across cultures What is normal to us may not be normal to other cultures! We make assumptions based on our own set of rules – Yet they are often different from other peoples rules. 13

14 What is culture? In your groups, brainstorm what culture means to you. 14

15 What is culture? Some modern definitions: Culture is the deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an organization, that operate unconsciously and define in a basic taken for granted fashion an organization's view of its self and its environment.( Edgar Schein) Culture is an integrated system of learned behavior patterns that are characteristic of the members of any given society. Culture refers to the total way of life for a particular group of people. It includes everything that a group of people thinks, says, does and makes its customs, language, material artifacts and shared systems of attitudes and feelings. Culture is learned and transmitted from generation to generation. (Robert Kohls) Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another. (Geert Hofstede) 15

16 The Iceberg Model BehavioursFive Senses Opinions Viewpoints Attitudes Philosophies Values Convictions 16

17 The Iceberg Model Music Language Clothing Gestures Sports Eye contact Emotions Art & Literature Leisure Activities Notions of Time How the individual fits into society Beliefs about human nature Tolerance for change Communication styles Importance of face, harmony Attitudes about mens/womens roles Importance of work Rules about relationships Preference for thinking style linear or systematic 17

18 Characteristics of Culture Culture is shared Culture is learned/acquired and enduring Culture is a powerful influence on behaviour Culture is systematic and organized Culture is largely invisible Culture may be tight or loose 18

19 What are US cultural values Form small groups and brainstorm what you consider to be US cultural values. 19

20 Cultural Dimensions Equality – Hierarchy Direct – Indirect Individual – Group Task – Relationship Risk – Caution Time 20

21 Attitude to Equality/Hierarchy A cultural style that is based on equality means people prefer to: A cultural style that is based on hierarchy means people prefer to: - be self directed- take direction from above - have flexibility in the roles they play in a team - have strong limitations about appropriate behaviour for certain roles - have the freedom to challenge the opinion of those in power - respect and not challenge the opinions of those in power because of their status and position - make exceptions, be flexible- enforce regulations - treat men and women in the same way- expect men and women to behave and be treated differently EqualityHierarchy Source: Peterson 21

22 Attitude to Equality/Hierarchy Denmark Norway UK Germany Netherlands Canada USA Italy Spain Greece Portugal Belgium Turkey France Equality Hierarchy Source: Hofstede 22

23 Attitude to Direct/Indirect A direct cultural style means people prefer to: An indirect cultural style means people prefer to: - be more direct in speaking and be less concerned about how something is said - focus not just on what is said, but how it is said - openly confront issues or difficulties- discreetly avoid difficult or contentious issues - communicate concerns straight forwardly- express concerns tactfully - express views or opinions in a frank manner - avoid conflict if at all possible - say things clearly, not leaving much open to interpretation - count on the listener to interpret meaning Direct Indirect Source: Peterson 23

24 Attitude to Direct/Indirect USA Canada Netherlands Germany Denmark Norway UK Belgium Hungary Italy Spain Portugal Greece Turkey Direct Indirect Source: Hofstede 24

25 Attitude to Individual/Group An individual cultural style means people prefer to: A group cultural style means people prefer to: - take individual initiative- act cooperatively and establish group goals - use personal guidelines in personal situations- standardize guidelines - focus on themselves- make loyalty to friends a high priority - judge people based on individual traits- determine their identity through group affiliation - make decisions individually- make decisions as a group - put individuals before the team- put the team or group before the individual - be nonconformists when necessary- conform to social norms - move in and out of groups as needed or desired- keep group membership for life IndividualGroup Source: Peterson 25

26 Attitude to Individual/Group USA UK Canada Netherlands Italy Belgium Denmark France Norway Germany Hungary Spain Turkey Greece Portugal Individual Group Source: Hofstede 26

27 Attitude to Task/Relationship A task cultural style means people prefer to:A relationship cultural style means people prefer to: - define people based on what they do- define people based on who they are - move straight to business, relationships come later - establish comfortable relationships and a sense of mutual trust before getting down to business - keep most relationships with co-workers impersonal - have personal relationships with co- workers - sacrifice leisure time and time with family in favour of work - sacrifice work in favour of leisure time and time with family - get to know co-workers and colleagues quickly but usually superficially - get to know co-workers and colleagues slowly and in depth - use largely impersonal selection criteria in hiring (such as CVs and test scores) - use largely personal selection criteria (such as family connections) when hiring - allow work to overlap with personal time- not allow work to impinge on personal life Task Relationship Source: Peterson 27

28 Attitude to Task/Relationship USA Denmark Netherlands UK Canada Norway Germany Belgium Italy Greece Hungary Spain Portugal Turkey Task Relationship Source: Hofstede 28

29 Attitude to Risk/Caution A risk cultural style means people prefer to:A cautious cultural style means people prefer to: - make decisions quickly with little information - collect considerable information before making a decision - focus on present and future- focus on the past - be less cautious – in a ready, aim, fire way- be more cautions – in a ready, aim fire way - change quickly without fear of risk- change slowly and avoid risks - try new and innovative ways of doing things - refer to past precedents of does and doesnt work - use new methods for solving,problems- stick to proven methods for solving problems - have fewer rules, regulations, guidelines and directions - want more rules, regulations, guidelines and directions - be comfortable changing plans at the last minute - not change plans at the last minute RiskCaution Source: Peterson 29

30 Attitude to Risk/Caution Denmark UK USA Canada Norway Netherlands Germany Italy Turkey Spain France Belgium Hungary Portugal Greece Risk Caution Source: Hofstede 30

31 Attitude to Time Tasks need to be given strict time periods Time is spent on interaction with people as well as on task accomplishment Take time commitments seriously (e.g. deadlines, schedules) Deadlines can be negotiable Preference for scheduling one thing at a time Comfortable doing many things at once No interruptions Interruptions accepted Quick pace Time is not always the priority Strict Linear Time Flexible With Time Source: Hall 31

32 Attitude to Time North America Western Europe Scandinavia Hungary Mediterranean Countries Strict Linear Time Flexible With Time Source: Hall 32

33 Origin of Cultural Contrasts Form a pair with another student you dont know very well. Identify which statement is closest to US culture. Identify which value from the Value Contrasts handout its selected sentence might represent. Speculate as to what factors, historically, might have contributed to the formation of the identified value in American culture. 33

34 Quiz In your groups Create 3 questions (2 Multiple choice and 1 open Q) about the content of the lecture 34

35 American Stereotypes In small groups, brainstorm what kind of stereotypes you think foreigners have of Americans. Furthermore, think of at least three stereotypes you have heard of related to European nationalitites. 35

36 Culturally Intelligent Leader The global leader of today and tomorrow must learn to be: flexible enough to adapt with knowledge sensitive to each new cultural situation that they face Do you think you are heading in that direction ? 36

37 Is that it? Royal Regards, Wishing you a great Spirit of Europe experience 37

38 Native English Speaker Activity Read pp.22 – 24 in the Intercultural awareness Document Figure out the linguistic mistakes in the howlers on pp Try to rephrase at least 6 of them in such a way that it is understandable for people from various linguistic and cultural backgrounds. Fill in the cultural Intelligence checklist on p

39 Which culture(s) can you perceive in this picture ? 39

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