3Learning ObjectivesExplain what leadership is, when leaders are effective and ineffective, and the sources of power that enable managers to be effective leaders.Identify the traits that show the strongest relationship to leadership, the behaviors leaders engage in, and the limitations of the trait and behavioral models of leadership.
4Learning ObjectivesExplain how contingency models of leadership enhance our understanding of effective leadership and management in organizations.Describe what transformational leadership is, and explain how managers can engage in it.Characterize the relationship between gender leadership.
5The Nature of Leadership The process by which a person exerts influence over others and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to achieve group or organizational goals.
6Question?What is an individual who is able to exert influence over other people to help achieve group or organizational goals?ManagerLeaderChiefOrganizerThe correct answer is “B” – leader. See next slide
7The Nature of Leadership An individual who is able to exert influence over other people to help achieve group or organizational goals
8The Nature of Leadership Personal Leadership StyleThe specific ways in which a manager chooses to influence others shapes the way that manager approaches the other principal tasks of management.The challenge is for managers at all levels to develop an effective personal management style.Leaders may delegate and support subordinates, while others are very authoritarian.
9The Nature of Leadership Distinction between managers and leadersManagers establish and implement procedures to ensure smooth functioningLeaders look to the future and chart the course for the organization
10Leadership Across Cultures Leadership styles may vary among different countries or cultures.European managers tend to be more people-oriented than American or Japanese managers.Japanese managers are group-oriented, while U.S managers focuses more on profitability.Time horizons also are affected by cultures.
12Power: The Key to Leadership Legitimate PowerThe authority that a manager has by virtue of his or her position in the firm.Example: the power to hire or fire employees.
13Power: The Key to Leadership Reward PowerThe ability of a manager to give or withhold tangible and intangible rewards.Effective managers use reward power to signal to employees that they are doing a good job.Example: awarding pay raises or providing verbal praise for good performance.
14Power: The Key to Leadership Coercive PowerThe ability of a manager to punish others.Examples: verbal reprimand, pay cuts, and dismissalLimited in effectiveness and application; can have serious negative side effects.
15Power: The Key to Leadership Expert PowerPower that is based on special knowledge, skills, and expertise that the leader possesses.Tends to be used in a guiding or coaching manner
16Power: The Key to Leadership Referent PowerPower that comes from subordinates’ and coworkers’ respect , admiration, and loyaltyPossessed by managers who are likable and whom subordinates wish to use as a role model
17Empowerment: An Ingredient in Modern Management The process of giving employees at all levels in the organization the authority to make decisions, be responsible for their outcomes, improve quality, and cut costs
18Empowerment: An Ingredient in Modern Management Empowerment increases a manager’s ability to get things doneEmpowerment increases workers’ involvement, motivation, and commitmentEmpowerment gives managers more time to concentrate on their pressing concerns
19Leadership Models Trait Model Attempt to identify personal characteristics that cause for effective leadership.Research shows that certain personal characteristics do appear to be connected to effective leadership.Many “traits” are the result of skills and knowledge and effective leaders do not necessarily possess all of these traits.
20Leadership Models Behavioral Model Identifies the two basic types of behavior that many leaders engaged in to influence their subordinates
21Leadership Models Behavioral Model Consideration: leaders show subordinates they trust, respect, and care about themManagers look out for the well-being of their subordinatesDo what they can to help subordinates feel good and enjoy the work they performBoth behaviors are independent; managers can be high or low on both behaviors.
22Leadership Models Behavioral Model Initiating structure: leaders take steps to make sure that work gets done, subordinates perform their work acceptably, and the organization is efficient and effectiveManagers assign tasks to groups and let subordinates know what is expected of them
23Contingency Models of Leadership What makes a manager an effective leader in one situation is not necessarily what that manager needs to be equally effective in another situation
24Contingency Models of Leadership Whether or not a manager is an effective leader is the result of the interplay between what the manager is like, what he does, and the situation in which leadership takes place
25Contingency Models of Leadership Fiedler’s ModelEffective leadership is contingent on both the characteristics of the leader and of the situation.Leader style is the enduring, characteristic approach to leadership that a manager uses and does not readily change.
26Contingency Models of Leadership Fiedler’s ModelRelationship-oriented style: leaders concerned with developing good relations with their subordinates and to be liked by them.Task-oriented style: leaders whose primary concern is to ensure that subordinates perform at a high level so the job gets done.
27Fiedler’s Model Situation Characteristics Leader-member relations – extent to which followers like, trust, and are loyal to their leaderTask structure – extent to which the work to be performed is clear-cut so that a leader’s subordinates know what needs to be accomplished and how to go about doing it
28Fiedler’s Model Situation Characteristics Position Power - the amount of legitimate, reward, and coercive power leaders have due to their position. When positional power is strong, leadership opportunity becomes more favorable.
29Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Figure 14.2
30House’s Path-Goal Theory A contingency model of leadership proposing that effective leaders can motivate subordinates to achieve goals by:Clearly identifying the outcomes that subordinates are trying to obtain from their jobs.Rewarding subordinates with these outcomes for high-performance and attainment of work goalsClarifying the paths leading to the attainment of work goals
31Question?Which leadership behavior gives subordinates a say in matters that affect them?Directive behaviorSupportive behaviorParticipative behaviorAchievement-oriented behaviorThe correct answer is “C” – participative behavior. See slide 14-33
32Motivating with Path-Goal Path-Goal identifies four leadership behaviors:Directive behaviors: set goals, assign tasks, show how to do things.Supportive behavior: look out for the worker’s best interest.
33Motivating with Path-Goal Path-Goal identifies four leadership behaviors:Participative behavior: give subordinates a say in matters that affect them.Achievement-oriented behavior: Setting very challenging goals, believing in worker’s abilities.
34Motivating with Path-Goal Which behavior to be used depends on the nature of the subordinates and the kind of work they do
35Discussion Question Which leadership model is the most effective? Trait modelBehavior modelFiedler’s modelPath-goal theoryThere is no one best answer. Students should be able to discuss the differences and appropriateness of the different models.
36The Leader Substitutes Model Leadership SubstituteActs in the place of a leader and makes leadership unnecessary.Worker empowerment or self-managed work teams reduce leadership needs.
37The Leader Substitutes Model Possible substitutes can be found in:Characteristics of the subordinates: their skills, experience, motivation.Characteristics of context: the extent to which work is interesting and fun.
38Transformational Leadership Leadership that:Makes subordinates aware of the importance of their jobs are for the organization and how necessary it is for them to perform those jobs as best they can so that the organization can attain its goals
39Transformational Leadership Makes subordinates aware of their own needs for personal growth, development, and accomplishmentMotivates workers to work for the good of the organization, not just for their own personal gain or benefit
40Being a Charismatic Leader An enthusiastic, self-confident transformational leader able to clearly communicate his vision of how good things could be
41Being a Charismatic Leader Being excited and clearly communicating excitement to subordinates.Openly sharing information with employees so that everyone is aware of problems and the need for change.Empowering workers to help with solutions.Engaging in the development of employees by working hard to help them build skills.
42Intellectual Stimulation Manager leads subordinates to view problems as challenges that they can and will meet and conquerManager engages and empowers subordinates to take personal responsibility for helping to solve problems
43Developmental Consideration Manager supports and encourages subordinates, giving them opportunities to enhance their skills and capabilities and to grow and excel on the job
44Transactional Leadership Use their reward and coercive powers to encourage high performance—they exchange rewards for performance and punish failure.Push subordinates to change but do not seem to change themselves.
45Gender and LeadershipThe number of women managers is rising but is still relatively low in the top levels of management.Stereotypes suggest women are supportive and concerned with interpersonal relations. Similarly, men are seen as task-focused.
46Gender and LeadershipResearch indicates that actually there is no gender-based difference in leadership effectiveness.Women are seen to be more participative than men because they adopt the participative approach to overcome subordinate resistance to them as managers and they have better interpersonal skills.
47Emotional Intelligence and Leadership The Moods of Leaders:Groups whose leaders experienced positive moods had better coordinationGroups whose leaders experienced negative moods exerted more effort
48Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Helps leaders develop a vision for their firm.Helps motivate subordinates to commit to the vision.Energizes subordinates to work to achieve the vision.
49Movie Example: The Fugitive What type of leader is Gerard?LeadershipThe FugitiveRichard Kimble (Harrison Ford) has been convicted of the murder of his wife. En route to prison the bus is involved in an accident and some prisoners escape, including Kimble. Agent Sam Gerard (Tommy Lee Jones) of the U.S. Marshals arrives on scene to coordinate the search for the fugitives. Kimble returns to Chicago to find his wife’s real killer and Gerard searches for Kimble and the truth.In this scene, Gerard arrives on the scene of the accident and takes over the investigation.What type of leader is Gerard?Is Gerard an effective leader?Is Gerard motivated by affiliation, power or achievement?