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Seminario: "Corpora: Seminar and Workshops" Università di Padova, Centro Linguistico di Ateneo, aula EF9, March 29-31, 2007 Predictability in film language:

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Presentation on theme: "Seminario: "Corpora: Seminar and Workshops" Università di Padova, Centro Linguistico di Ateneo, aula EF9, March 29-31, 2007 Predictability in film language:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Seminario: "Corpora: Seminar and Workshops" Università di Padova, Centro Linguistico di Ateneo, aula EF9, March 29-31, 2007 Predictability in film language: corpus assisted research Chris Taylor University of Trieste

2 Talking Points 1. Film Language 2. Genre 3. Predictability 4. Translation (dubbing, subtitling) 5. Corpus assistance

3 Film Language The thesis that film language differs appreciably from ordinary, everyday, spontaneous language has been recognised, and little criticised, since the beginnings of the cinema.

4 APS The flow of images in a film was (and is) created by film directors, cameramen, set designers, etc. in the construction of an artificial situation. Similarly the language (and grammar) of film was (and is) a scripted construct created by writers, altered by directors and actors, in the creation of an artificially produced situation (APS)

5 Talkies With the advent of talking films, film language became a reality though initially it remained theatrically influenced. With the advent of talking films, film language became a reality though initially it remained theatrically influenced.

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7 John Wayne "No great trail was ever blazed without hardship...and you gotta fight! That's life..and when you stop fightin', that's death." "No great trail was ever blazed without hardship...and you gotta fight! That's life..and when you stop fightin', that's death."

8 Who writes a film? A film is a team effort, with a consequent downplaying of its paternity. The authors of a film (and its translated version) consist of: screenplay writers, directors, cameramen, editors, actors, translator/adaptors, dubbing directors, dubbing actors, subtitlers, producers...

9 An open text It is an open text: written to be acted and synchronised with the visual. A film lacks a single text of reference (unlike theatre and radio discourse), in that various transpositions succeed one another (subject, script, dialogue list, transcription, translation, etc.)

10 Film text components There is a co-existence of written language features (no hesitation, no repetition, no self-correction, no unarticulated sounds, no overlapping speech, etc.) and spoken discourse (eg. recourse to para and extralinguistic elements). There is a co-existence of written language features (no hesitation, no repetition, no self-correction, no unarticulated sounds, no overlapping speech, etc.) and spoken discourse (eg. recourse to para and extralinguistic elements).

11 Language WrittenOralFilm dialogue Uniformity of pragmatic and textual units (turns, clauses, utterances) --+ Tendency to monologism +-+/- Extension of the units (turns, clauses, utterances) +-- Overlapping, fuzziness and other dialogical acidents -+- Planning, coherence and cohesion +-+ Recourse to para and extralinguistic elements -++ Morphosyntactic complexity +-+/- Lexical density+-+/- Presence of dialect-++/-

12 Filmese? Compare the language of film with a spoken corpus of English. Compare the language of film with a spoken corpus of English. Bank of English Bank of English

13 Examples chosen NOW NOW WELL WELL RIGHT RIGHT SO SO OK OK YES YES

14 Realistic films - total Words 995,746 Words 995,746 now377 now377 well1179 well1179 right260 right260 yes238 yes238 OK670 OK670 so1032 so1032

15 Bank of English Words 1,000,000 circa Words 1,000,000 circa now620 now620 well2990 well2990 right3650 right3650 yes 3830 yes 3830 OK 1150 OK 1150 so 4800 so 4800

16 Comparison realistic/corpus

17 Tag questions - totals compared Total tag questions in Films Total tag questions in Films – 488 Total tag questions in Corpus Total tag questions in Corpus –1,194

18 Cobuild corpus – concordances of hedge could you Could you keep your head Could you keep your head I just want to tie a knot in that so could you hold that. Thank you. I just want to tie a knot in that so could you hold that. Thank you. me about that. Erm could you just say those again please? me about that. Erm could you just say those again please? we are erm Morning. Could you help yourself to a course we are erm Morning. Could you help yourself to a course capital ratio's been roughly. Could you er Okay now. capital ratio's been roughly. Could you er Okay now. Okay now. Sir? Yes? Could you just repeat the whole thing Okay now. Sir? Yes? Could you just repeat the whole thing Well can can you could you investigate that? Yeah I' Well can can you could you investigate that? Yeah I' than stimulate that Could you also use your hands then? than stimulate that Could you also use your hands then? many many many books of Could you give me the name again? many many many books of Could you give me the name again? on both feet. Could could you tell just by on both feet. Could could you tell just by Could you cook leave Could you cook leave leave Yes. Could you Right so that's leave Yes. Could you Right so that's which one you want Could you pass that to me please and I'll which one you want Could you pass that to me please and I'll MX it looks like you again. Could you the the point MX it looks like you again. Could you the the point a dee. accent ends Could you translate that please FX? a dee. accent ends Could you translate that please FX? lots of letters from people saying Could you play your signature tune in lots of letters from people saying Could you play your signature tune in on Saturday the twentieth of April could you please play it for me and let on Saturday the twentieth of April could you please play it for me and let trouble at the bottom of division one could you actually arrange for Derby trouble at the bottom of division one could you actually arrange for Derby Four and in four letters could you describe Joe Vengloss Four and in four letters could you describe Joe Vengloss a thousand pounds. Yes. Could you lose the whole lot? Erm. a thousand pounds. Yes. Could you lose the whole lot? Erm. my memory I've had a request you know could you play a a record my memory I've had a request you know could you play a a record and it says `If you do play it please could you play it on your show between and it says `If you do play it please could you play it on your show between a begging letter saying please could you send us some money. Which a begging letter saying please could you send us some money. Which Okay Ray. Nice to Er could you send me a photo John. My wife Okay Ray. Nice to Er could you send me a photo John. My wife or something like that. Could you really. No. Now I or something like that. Could you really. No. Now I switch it off. Could you just turn it down a bit? switch it off. Could you just turn it down a bit? Hello there. Yes MX. Could you er ask Tom Ross how er the next Hello there. Yes MX. Could you er ask Tom Ross how er the next All right? Yes MX? Er could you tell me please what is going on All right? Yes MX? Er could you tell me please what is going on m toying around with Birmingham City could you explain to me why is it I've m toying around with Birmingham City could you explain to me why is it I've is coming up Well could you sort of erm I'll let you is coming up Well could you sort of erm I'll let you And all the time thank you very much could you actually leave the jug And all the time thank you very much could you actually leave the jug Could that be your word list and could you then start with the number the Could that be your word list and could you then start with the number the on-screen Well could you try it to start with and see on-screen Well could you try it to start with and see Could be semantic Mm. could you know like my semantic Could be semantic Mm. could you know like my semantic on phone Erm so could you possibly speak to MX? And if it' on phone Erm so could you possibly speak to MX? And if it' on phone Hello it's FX. Could you tell erm MX that we've reached on phone Hello it's FX. Could you tell erm MX that we've reached Mm. There's Yeah could you could Grep Mm. There's Yeah could you could Grep spelt thus throughout could you not Grep excluding I mean and spelt thus throughout could you not Grep excluding I mean and s type-token ratio couldn't we. Could you? Well ' s type-token ratio couldn't we. Could you? Well ' get the number of hapax could you? Because get the number of hapax could you? Because think of you know could you pass suggestions to FX think of you know could you pass suggestions to FX is rather unnecessary. Er yes. Could you just hold on a minute? MX is rather unnecessary. Er yes. Could you just hold on a minute? MX

19 2 Use of parataxis And: 1,864 (186,400) r.o. and 413 (41,300) d.o. out of 2,277 (227,700) t.o. taken into account [1] [1] 1.in it. Mm. Yes. And it had a Greek delicatessen. 2. Well I'm doing a bit of Brahms and some Schubert and some Wolfe that's 3.it always seem to be nice and friendly and they are they are doing 4.smoking as our New Year's resolution and he said but I thought I said I'd 5.I grabbed him grabbed his collar and he just slipped it and I was just 6.was after yeah. Really. And this American journalist was saying 7.centre and so we said oh let's go and give some blood lot actually. 8.he said Yeah I think so I'm not sure and it was all like this and I was 9. I'll I'll try and be less greedy have 10.er Dave said `It's Graham and he's got three people with him". 11. and so they they sort of 12.eighteen plus group. We're going to go and record their talk on snakes. Erm 13.the year she's absolutely brilliant" and she's not spoddy brilliant she's you 14.I think three things will come and flow one from another. I think the 15.thirty million I mean and and in that I'm including Andrew's 16.set up or black box environment and it's as easy to do and easier to do 17.run through Edgbaston out here and it tails out towards Solihull. And 18.decision making body of Chamber and they discuss really important 19.er the private part of his anatomy. And what it had been is like he'd gone 20.and then you can come and come along and say `well I don't understand this on 21.interest we can pay or earn let's go and take our money elsewhere" so they 22.they can invest there in interest and they can pay you more. So you shop 23.account the interest that's being paid and then you discount the increase in 24.consume the whole bang shoot today and have nothing for tomorrow or you can 25.A much easier way is just sit back and let the bank do it for you okay well 26.made made no difference and still had the the 27.then if you could pursue that sort of and get a result on it within the next 28.and also let's snub the rest of Europe and the Commonwealth and the rest of the 29.phone calls or having video links and carrying out their business from 30.and then overnight it just changed and it was you know flash buses and 31.rate of growth in the money supply and what you will find if you 32.does it stands for? The B and the C are just numbers for 33.by the contrast in `well I had to" and the more you know meditated 34.I'd had enough Yeah. And I hadn't been rubbing on her head you see. And then I had to use the chart to show [1][1] The total number of occurrences recorded in the Cobuild Corpus is 227,658. In order to allow the selection of relevant instances, the approximate figure of 227,700 has been considered and subsequently divided by 100.

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24 USE OF VAGUE LANGUAGE – RESULTS A. CSI Tab. no. 1: CSI – kind of (9 r.o d.o. = 26 t.o.) NConcordanceWor d No. File% 1ll dies. JACK This guy thinks it's some kind of a joke, using a voice like that. 260 e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-03.doc 5 2at, James was nervous, you know. He was kind of a shy guy. I mean he wanted to p e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-04.doc 25 3ent had to be slightly curved with some kind of sereated edge, like crocodile te 737 e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-05.doc 11 4king lot, he starts kissing on me. I, I kind of laughed it off, but then he grab e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-05.doc 29 5ide. First reports indicate he had some kind of episode. SHERIFF Give me a littl 473 e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-08.doc 8 6Second voice, guy in 2F. PRESTON He was kind of far away. WARRICK Max. GRISSOM T e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-08.doc 48 7 this was your day off. CATHERINE We're kind of busy here, Nick. NICK I know tha e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-12.doc 33 8on the news. They're saying it was some kind of a hit. Where are Erin and Alice? e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-18.doc 21 9of the victim on the towel. DR. ROBBINS Kind of a forensic smoking gun. GRISSOM e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-21.doc 17

25 Tab. no. 3: CSI – kinda (6 r.o. + 2 d.o. = 8 t.o.) NConcordanceWord No. File% 1ft... What's a matter? HOLLY GRIBBS I'm kinda light headed. GRISSOM Here. Sit do 782e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-01.doc 10 2need to know what you saw. JERROD I was kinda taking a break. Hanging out in thi e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-05.doc 32 3 would have remembered. So this film is kinda hard to detect -- because it disso e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-05.doc WARRICK Not if we have these. They're kinda outa place. A walking stride up to e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-07.doc 16 5 BRASS It's old and it's heavy and it's kinda stuck there. Anything else? EMILY e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-08.doc 39 6M What spider web? WARRICK Right there. Kinda hard to get a baby out the window, 863e:\robert~1\corpus~1\tvcor p~1\scripts\csi\csi-17.doc 15

26 Genre Genre analysis (Swales, Halliday, Hatim & Mason, Ventola, Aston et al) has produced some interesting work on classifying language use. At a macro-level we can talk of literary language, the language of journalism, scientific discourse, etc.

27 Subgenre But genres generate subgenres: novels, poetry, detective stories… tabloids, qualities, magazines…. nuclear physics, medicine, biochemistry

28 ..and little fleas have littler fleas Genrelets Genrelets instances or instantiations of language use associated with very particular sub-sub genres: love story dialogue weather forecast medical conference abstract a social occasion enshrined in language

29 Film genres Of course the expression film genre will bring to mind such types as western, spy story, comedy, etc. Of course the expression film genre will bring to mind such types as western, spy story, comedy, etc. But films too have their sub-genres and genrelets. But films too have their sub-genres and genrelets.

30 Film genres 2 And it is these genrelets that are of interest in the question of predictability. And it is these genrelets that are of interest in the question of predictability. E.g., telephone conversations, presentations, mealtime dialogue, bar talk, etc. E.g., telephone conversations, presentations, mealtime dialogue, bar talk, etc.

31 Predictability breakdown in public transport system scenario On these occasions (English) passengers suddenly seem to become aware of each other. Our actions are always the same and minutely predictable, almost as though they had been choreographed (Fox). Huh, typical! Huh, typical! What is it this time? Wrong kind of leaves, I suppose.

32 Intertextuality In genrelets such as love scenes, telephone call protocols, presentations, service encounters, etc. there is little room for creative language use. The same formulae are used over and over again, with the same cues and the same response mechanisms. In genrelets such as love scenes, telephone call protocols, presentations, service encounters, etc. there is little room for creative language use. The same formulae are used over and over again, with the same cues and the same response mechanisms.

33 Priming Hoey: words and expressions are PRIMED to appear in particular environments. e.g., I love you too.

34 And … In winter … In winter … During the cold season … During the cold season … In the winter months … In the winter months … When frosts tentacles do wrap us … When frosts tentacles do wrap us …

35 Film language The language of film tends to accentuate the aspects outlined in the previous slides. The language of film tends to accentuate the aspects outlined in the previous slides. Especially in stylised genres (traditional westerns, medieval dramas, quickly produced cop and sci-fi series, etc.) but even in more realistic genres, language use is that much more cued and crafted and thus more PREDICTABLE. Especially in stylised genres (traditional westerns, medieval dramas, quickly produced cop and sci-fi series, etc.) but even in more realistic genres, language use is that much more cued and crafted and thus more PREDICTABLE.

36 Translation In translation, all this becomes ever more apparent.

37 Translation process Subject Subject –treatment –screenplay –script [written dialogues] Spoken dialogue Spoken dialogue Continuity script (transcription and postsynchronization) Continuity script (transcription and postsynchronization) Translation Translation –adaptation –dubbing –mixage –translated spoken dialogue –subtitles

38 Translation of Dawsons Creek. Given the originals stated intention of not aiming at authentic dialogue the dubbed version on Italian television, follows suit … only more so. Given the originals stated intention of not aiming at authentic dialogue the dubbed version on Italian television, follows suit … only more so.

39 Dawsons Creek in Italian According to Zandegù: According to Zandegù: The language can be given the label ZERO ORALITY referring to the reduction in variation at a stylistic, sociocultural and dialectal level.

40 Translation Memory At times the predictability is so pronounced that an element of translation memory technique, technologically aided or otherwise, could prove useful. At least the predictability factor should be taken into account in order to save time and particularly to ensure consistency.

41 Testing predictability Various films have been analysed in terms of their genre structure, and sub-genres and genrelets have been identified. A corpus of such data is beiong painstkingly constructed.

42 Centro Linguistico d'Ateneo Universita' degli Studi di Trieste Trieste Movie Database eCoLingua italian version english version version 0.1a last update 01/02/07 webmaster webmaster

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45 TITOLO Stregata dalla luna TITOLO ORIGINALE Moonstruck TYPE OF SCENEBEGINENDDURATIONNOTES Restaurant (ordering) Public row (man -woman) Restaurant (ordering) marriage proposal At the airport At the airport Public row (husband -wife) Father and son Mother and daughter Mother and daughter On the phone

46 On the phone TitleLanguagesCh.BeginEndNotes Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Kramer contro Kramer Eng/Fra/Ger/ Ita/Spa Kramer contro Kramer Eng/Fra/Ger/ Ita/Spa

47 Kramer versus Kramer (phone conversations compared with corpus findings) Yeah, hi, Ted Kramer Yeah, hi, Ted Kramer Listen … OK? Listen … OK? Yeah, OK, you too, thanks a lot. Yeah, OK, you too, thanks a lot. Hi Margaret, this is Ted. Is my wife there? Hi Margaret, this is Ted. Is my wife there? Yeah, yeah … Yeah, yeah … If she comes, tell her to come over or just give me a ring …yeah If she comes, tell her to come over or just give me a ring …yeah If she comes, tell her to give me a ring If she comes, tell her to give me a ring Thanks a lot Thanks a lot

48 Kramer versus Kramer Yeah, hi, Ted Kramer Yeah, hi, Ted Kramer Listen … OK? Listen … OK? Yeah, OK, you too, thanks a lot. Yeah, OK, you too, thanks a lot. Sì, pronto, Ted Kramer Sì, pronto, Ted Kramer Senti … OK? Senti … OK? Ah, OK, anche tu, grazie tante. Ah, OK, anche tu, grazie tante. (to be compared with Italian corpus)

49 Other genres analysed in their original and translated versions Presentations Presentations Girl-boy rows (cf. When Harry met Sally) Girl-boy rows (cf. When Harry met Sally) Marriage proposals Marriage proposals At the airport, railway station, hairdressers, etc. At the airport, railway station, hairdressers, etc. Father and son, mother and daughter, etc. Father and son, mother and daughter, etc. Sackings Sackings Chat up routines Chat up routines Trailer monologues Trailer monologues

50 Presentazioni TitleLanguagesCh.BeginEndNotes Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Notting HillEng/Ita/Spa Annie Hall Eng/Fra/G er/Ita/Spa Moonstruck Eng/Fra/G er/Ita/Spa Moonstruck Eng/Fra/G er/Ita/Spa Artificial Intelligence Eng/Ita/Spa My beautiful Laundrette Eng/Ita

51 Less predictable genres in translation Even where the language transfer involves some kind of semantic or pragmatic shift (eg. bar protocols in English and Italian), matches based on predictability can be easily made. But some genres, where cultural mores are involved, prove troublesome.

52 Foodies One minute its sun-dried tomatoes with everything, the next minute these are passé,and its raspberry vinegar,or garlic mash, or delicate layers of potato rosti wth goat-cheese filo parcels and horseradish sabayon. Such concepts are difficult to translate into cultures that dont regard these ingredients as exotic, and where foodies are just normal people.

53 Invitati a cena Buonissimo! Buonissimo! Ma come riesci a fare questi fagiolini? Ma come riesci a fare questi fagiolini? Da noi si usa solo aglio e olio. Da noi si usa solo aglio e olio. Sono la fine del mondo!! Sono la fine del mondo!! These expressions (not the words) are difficult to translate for the simple reason that English people dont say them. These expressions (not the words) are difficult to translate for the simple reason that English people dont say them.

54 …from one extreme to the other Between the extremes of total disdain and novelty obsession lie the pitfalls for the translator, as neither position is taken up in Italian contexts. Between the extremes of total disdain and novelty obsession lie the pitfalls for the translator, as neither position is taken up in Italian contexts. This is not a question of culture-bound terms – polenta, mushy peas – but of cultural mind sets. This is not a question of culture-bound terms – polenta, mushy peas – but of cultural mind sets.

55 Il Commissario Montalbano: coffee Michela: (bevendo il caffè) Mhm! Sì! Michela: (bevendo il caffè) Mhm! Sì! Mimì: (guardando Montalbano versare il caffè) Ce nè magari pemmea? Mimì: (guardando Montalbano versare il caffè) Ce nè magari pemmea? CM:.. Mi è venuto voglia di una bella granatina di caffè CM:.. Mi è venuto voglia di una bella granatina di caffè Fazio:Ho portato il… Fazio:Ho portato il… Donna:(beve lultimo sorso di caffè) Donna:(beve lultimo sorso di caffè)

56 Pasta con broccoli CM: Sto mangiando la pasta con broccoli, chi è che rompe… CM: Sto mangiando la pasta con broccoli, chi è che rompe… Livia:Chi ti ha preparato la pasta con broccoli? Scommetto Adelina?... Sabato mattina prendo laereo e vengo giù. Livia:Chi ti ha preparato la pasta con broccoli? Scommetto Adelina?... Sabato mattina prendo laereo e vengo giù. CM:Sabato? CM:Sabato? Livia:Sì, sarò a Vigato per lora di pranzo. Livia:Sì, sarò a Vigato per lora di pranzo. CM:Ah, benissimo..ma, sei sicura? CM:Ah, benissimo..ma, sei sicura? Livia:Sicurissima. Ho già fatto il biglietto… Vai a buttare quella pasta nella spazzatura! Livia:Sicurissima. Ho già fatto il biglietto… Vai a buttare quella pasta nella spazzatura!

57 Classic scene: elements of predictability C- Dunque oggi cho pe vossia un risotto a nevuro di siccia chè megghio e na cassata. C- Dunque oggi cho pe vossia un risotto a nevuro di siccia chè megghio e na cassata. M- Per me va bene, per lei? M- Per me va bene, per lei? B- Anche per me va bene. B- Anche per me va bene. M- Aggiudicato. M- Aggiudicato. C- Ah, per secondo carissimo dottore Montalbano ci sono delle spigole freschissime pescate stanotte oppure… C- Ah, per secondo carissimo dottore Montalbano ci sono delle spigole freschissime pescate stanotte oppure… M- No, per me va bene le spigole senza oppure, per lei? M- No, per me va bene le spigole senza oppure, per lei? B- Anche per me va bene. B- Anche per me va bene. M- Aggiudicato. M- Aggiudicato.

58 Translation No dubbing (yet) attempted. The question arises firstly as to whether to foreignise, localise or standardise. This decision can be helped by reference to specific databases (eg the entire Montalbano series) and comparisons with corpora of similar series in the target language/culture.

59 Foreignisation Caffè remains – its meaning is known but is not always clear (what kind of coffee?) Caffè remains – its meaning is known but is not always clear (what kind of coffee?) Pasta con broccoli is a leitmotif of the series and can be left as it is. Pasta con broccoli is a leitmotif of the series and can be left as it is. Spaghetti con sugo di ricci, risotto a nevuro di siccia, na cassata, spigole freschissime pescate stanotte, can be left and simply understood as Italian dishes. Spaghetti con sugo di ricci, risotto a nevuro di siccia, na cassata, spigole freschissime pescate stanotte, can be left and simply understood as Italian dishes.

60 Localisation Caffè must be rendered more English, ironically through the use of explicit markers – cappucino, espresso, latte, etc. – depending on which of these is considered the most universal. Caffè must be rendered more English, ironically through the use of explicit markers – cappucino, espresso, latte, etc. – depending on which of these is considered the most universal. Pasta con broccoli may be changed to something more recognisably Italian such as spaghetti bolognese or lasagne. It depends on whether it can be seen. Pasta con broccoli may be changed to something more recognisably Italian such as spaghetti bolognese or lasagne. It depends on whether it can be seen. Spaghetti con sugo di ricci, risotto a nevuro di siccia, na cassata, spigole freschissime pescate stanotte, can be changed to recognisable English/American dishes – spaghetti with meatballs, sausages, ice cream, snapper. Spaghetti con sugo di ricci, risotto a nevuro di siccia, na cassata, spigole freschissime pescate stanotte, can be changed to recognisable English/American dishes – spaghetti with meatballs, sausages, ice cream, snapper.

61 Standardisation Caffè = coffee Caffè = coffee Pasta con broccoli = pasta with broccoli Pasta con broccoli = pasta with broccoli Spaghetti con sugo di ricci, risotto a nevuro di siccia, na cassata, spigole freschissime pescate stanotte, spaghetti, rice, cake, fish. Spaghetti con sugo di ricci, risotto a nevuro di siccia, na cassata, spigole freschissime pescate stanotte, spaghetti, rice, cake, fish.

62 Conclusion 1 The collection of massive amounts of text on computer, and the creation of corpora and databases allow us to create concordances and compare language use between film and spontaneous dialogue. The collection of massive amounts of text on computer, and the creation of corpora and databases allow us to create concordances and compare language use between film and spontaneous dialogue.

63 Conclusion 2 The analysis of concordances, word counts and statistical calculations enable us to observe patterns of language use which may prove useful in the translation of film and television texts. The analysis of concordances, word counts and statistical calculations enable us to observe patterns of language use which may prove useful in the translation of film and television texts.

64 Conclusion 3 WHERE THE TEXT IS HIGHLY PREDICTABLE there is a place in film translation (in the broadest sense), in subtitling but also in dubbing, for the judicious use of some kind of translation memory tool (eg, Atrils Dejà vu). Although this would require very careful editing it could save a lot of time and provide much needed consistency

65 Conclusion 4 WHERE TEXTS ARE NOT VERY PREDICTABLE translation choices may lie between foreignisation, localisation and standardisation. The choice will depend on such factors as the prestige of the film or given audience tastes.

66 Conclusion 5 WHERE TEXTS ARE GOVERNED BY CULTURAL MORES predictability can be largely discounted, firstly in the patterns of the source language, and particularly in translation. Here the translator is on his/her own in gauging to what extent the audience is attuned to the mind set of the source text culture.

67 Conclusion 6 Practically all films (or TV series, or documentaries, or advertisements, or cartoons…) will contain stretches covered by conclusions 1, 2 or 3. The special skill of the translator lies also in identifying these stretches and treating them accordingly… Practically all films (or TV series, or documentaries, or advertisements, or cartoons…) will contain stretches covered by conclusions 1, 2 or 3. The special skill of the translator lies also in identifying these stretches and treating them accordingly…

68 Conclusion 7 …and it is the corpus which can assist the translator in pinning down those stretches more accurately.


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