2 I. Deduction versus Induction A. Deduction: the process of reasoning in which a conclusionfollows necessarily from the stated premises.B. Induction: the process of inferring a general principle fromobservations.II. Scientific TheoryA. Theory: an explanation or model created from a great many observations and capable of making valid predictions or hypotheses.B. Falsifiable: stated in such clear, precise terms that we cansee what evidence would count against it.C. Burden of Proof: the obligation to present evidence tosupport one’s claim.
3 III. Scientific Method: the way in which scientists go about investigating and makingclaims about phenomena.Hypothesis: a tentative explanation for an observation thatcan be tested through research.B. Method: the process by which you test your hypothesis.C. Results: the recorded outcome of the method.D. Interpretation: your evaluation of the results.E. Replicability: the ability for other people to replicateprevious results through further experimentation using thesame procedures.
4 F. Meta-Analysis: an analysis that combines the results from many studies and then analyzes them as if they were all fromone large study.G. Occam’s Razor: the explanation that’s most simple is usuallythe most accurate.1) Aliens!2) ESP!
5 IV. Conducting Psychological Research A. Operational Definitions: a definition that specifies theprocedures used to produce or measure something.B. Population: the entire group of people to be considered.C. Sample: a small number of people taken from the population.1) Convenience Sample: a sample that can include anyone.2) Representative Sample: a sample that closely resembles the population you are studying.3) Random sample: each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.
6 V. Eliminating the Influence of Expectations A. Experimenter Bias: the tendency of an experimenter todistort or misperceive the results of an experiment based onthe expected outcome.B. Blind Observer: someone who can record data withoutknowing the experimenter’s expected outcome.C. Placebo: a pill with no pharmacological effects.D. Single-Blind Study: either the observer or the participantsare unaware of which participants received which treatment.E. Double-Blind Study: both the observer and the participantsare unaware of who’s in what condition.F. Demand Characteristics: cues that tell a participant what isexpected of him or her and what the experimenter hopes to find.
7 VI. Forms of Data Collection A. Laboratory Observation: behavior is observed and recorded in a controlled environment.B. Naturalistic Observation: a careful examination of whathappens under more or less natural conditions.C. Case History: a thorough description of the person, includingthe person’s abilities and disabilities, medical conditions, lifehistory, unusual experiences, or whatever else seems relevant.D. Survey: a study of the prevalence of certain beliefs, attitudes,or behaviors based on people’s responses to specific questions.1) Sampling… doing this correctly is really important with surveys.2) Survey Scales… Likert versus VAS
8 VII. Correlational Studies A. Correlation: a measure of the relationship between 2variables.B. Correlational Study: a procedure in which investigatorsmeasure the correlation between 2 variables without controllingfor either of them.C. Correlation Coefficient: a mathematical estimate of therelationship between 2 variables. The range is –1 to +1.D. Illusory Correlation: an apparent relationship based oncasual observations of unrelated or weakly related events.E. Meaningless Correlation… it’s meaningless.F. Correlation vs. Causation… just because two variablesare correlated doesn’t mean that one causes the other.
9 VIII. CausationA. Experiment: a study in which the investigator manipulates atleast one variable while measuring at least one other variable.B. Independent Variable: the item that the experimentermanipulates to get an effect.C. Dependent Variable: the item that the experimentermeasures to see if the independent variable had an effect.D. Experimental Group: group that receives the treatment(Independent Variable) that an experiment is designed to test.E. Control Group: group that is treated just like theexperimental group, but does not receive the treatment.F. Random Assignment: experimenter uses some randomprocess of assigning people to each group.
10 IX. Other FactorsA. Ethical Concerns with Humans: experimenters must becareful that the designs of the their studies do not harmparticipants mentally, emotionally, or physically.B. Ethical Concerns with Non-Humans: the same concernsas with humans, but more lenient.C. Informed Consent: a statement informing participants whatto expect in an experiment and that requires their acceptanceof the procedures.D. Debriefing: an important post-experiment interview betweenexperimenters and participants verifying that participants arefully informed about, and were not harmed in any way by, theirexperience in an experiment.
11 X. The Evaluation of Psychological Tests A. Standardization: the process of establishing rules foradministering a test and for interpreting the scores.B. Norms: the descriptions of how frequently various scoresoccur.1) EXAMPLE: The Distribution of IQ Scores2) Follows a Normal Distribution (bell-shaped curve)a) The average IQ score for all age groups is designated as 100.b) 68% of people supposedly fall within one SD unit above and belowthe mean.c) 95% supposedly fall within two SD units in either direction.2 SD above = gifted2 SD below = mentally challenged
12 C. Reliability: the repeatability of the test’s scores. 1) Test-Retest Reliability…a) Test the same group of people twice with the same test.b) Test the same group of people twice with equivalent versions ofthe test.D. Validity: a determination of how well a test measures thething it claims to measure.1) Content Validity: the test’s items accurately represent parts ofthe information that the test is meant to measure.2) Construct Validity: the validity of the theoretical construct that thetest is designed to measure.3) Predictive Validity: the ability of the test to predict some real-worldtask performance.E. Utility: a test’s usefulness for a practical purpose.