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Adaptations CO 2 CALVIN CYCLE Bundle- sheath cell 3-C sugar C 4 plant 4-C compound CO 2 CALVIN CYCLE 3-C sugar CAM plant 4-C compound Night Day Mesophyll.

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Presentation on theme: "Adaptations CO 2 CALVIN CYCLE Bundle- sheath cell 3-C sugar C 4 plant 4-C compound CO 2 CALVIN CYCLE 3-C sugar CAM plant 4-C compound Night Day Mesophyll."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adaptations CO 2 CALVIN CYCLE Bundle- sheath cell 3-C sugar C 4 plant 4-C compound CO 2 CALVIN CYCLE 3-C sugar CAM plant 4-C compound Night Day Mesophyll cell CO 2

2 Evolution Ch 13

3 Charles Darwin 18591874

4 Voyage of the HMS Beagle

5 On the Origin of Species… Descent With Modification By means of Natural Selection

6 How Did Darwin Come Up With His Ideas? Scientific Method Key observations – Traits vary in a population – Most traits are inherited from parent to offspring – More offspring are produced than the environment can support (Thomas Malthus)

7 Recap Limited resources Overproduction of offspring Heritable individual variation – Therefore, survival depends partly on inherited features

8 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution In a varied population, individuals whose inherited characters best adapt them to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce. Therefore, more fit individuals tend to leave more offspring than less fit individuals. Natural Selection is the mechanism – Reproduction (differential) is Key

9 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Natural Selection is the mechanism – Reproduction (differential) is Key Fitness- degree of adaptation to a specific environment Adaptive if it enhances individual’s fitness

10 Natural Selection

11 Artificial Selection

12 Observing natural selection Camouflage adaptations that evolved in different environments A flower mantid in Malaysia A leaf mantid in Costa Rica Figure 13.5A

13 Pestacide Resistance Pesticide application Survivor Chromosome with gene conferring resistance to pesticide Additional applications of the same pesticide will be less effective, and the frequency of resistant insects in the population will grow Figure 13.5B

14 Support for Descent with Modification Biogeography Fossil Record Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Cell Biology Comparative Anatomy

15 Biogeography Geographic distribution of species – Galápagos animals resembled species of the South American mainland more than animals on similar but distant islands – Organisms may have common ancestor

16 Fossil Evidence – Organisms evolved in a historical sequence A Skull of Homo erectus D Dinosaur tracks C Ammonite casts B Petrified tree E Fossilized organic matter of a leaf G “Ice Man” Figure 13.3A–G F Insect in amber

17 Fossil Evidence Many fossils link early extinct species with species living today Figure 13.3I

18 Comparative Anatomy Comparison of body structures in different species – Homology- similar characteristics resulting from common ancestry – Homologous structures- features with different functions but structurally similar due to common ancestry Human CatWhale Bat Figure 13.4A

19 Comparative Embryology Comparison of early stages of development among different organisms Post-anal tail Pharyngeal pouches Chick embryo Human embryo Figure 13.4B

20 Molecular Biology Comparisons of DNA and amino acid sequences between different organisms to reveal evolutionary relationships Table 13.4

21 Unit of Evolution Evolution acts on individuals, affects whole populations – Populations are the unit of evolution – Group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time

22 Unit of Evolution Evolution is change in prevalence of heritable traits in population through time A gene pool – Is the total collection of genes in a population at any one time Microevolution – Is a change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a gene pool

23 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Frequency of alleles in a stable population will not change over time – Very large population – Population is isolated – Mutations don’t alter gene pool – Random mating – All individuals are equal in reproductive success In reality, this never happens

24 Agents of Change Genetic Drift – Bottle neck affect – Founder affect Gene Flow Mutation Non Random Mating Natural Selection

25 Variation Extensive in most populations Mutation and sexual recombination generate variation and can create new alleles. Figure 13.11

26 Endangered species often have reduced variation Low genetic variability May reduce the capacity of endangered species to survive as humans continue to alter the environment Figure 13.10

27 Selection Models

28 Sexual Selection Sexual Dimorphism Sexual Selection- where individuals with certain characteristics are more likely to obtain mates than others. – Intrasexual selection – Intersexual selection

29 Selection Heterozygote advantage – Balancing selection Ex: Sickle cell anemia – Frequency-dependent selection Fitness of genotype depends on frequency it occurs Ex: mimicry – Neutral Variation Little to no impact on phenotype or fitness Natural Selection cannot distinguish alleles

30 Natural Selection is Limited Only act on existing variation Historical constraints Compromise Chance, selection and the environment

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