2 Adaptation Natural selection Coevolution Divergent evolution Process leading to the increase in frequency of a particular structure, process, or behavior that makes the organism better able to survive and reproduceNatural selectionChanges in inherited traits of a population over timeChanges help to increase the species’ fitness in its environmentCoevolutionTwo species that live in close proximity changing in response to changes in the otherDivergent evolutionA number of species split off from a common ancestorConvergent evolutionEvolution in different groups of organisms living in similar environments that produces species that are similar in appearance and behavior
3 Homologous structures Gene flowMovement of genes in and out of a population (migration)GradualismGradual changes of a species in a particular way over long periods of timeHomologous structuresStructures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissuesAnalogous structureStructures similar in appearance and function but with different evolutionary originsEmbryologyStudy of the anatomy of embryos and their developmentPhylogenetic treeDiagram used to show the evolutionary relationships between organisms and classify them into major taxa
4 Where did Darwin draw his ideas of natural selection? Galapagos IslandsAccording to Darwin, evolution occurs because of what?Because of natural selectionWhat causes variations in genotypes?MutationsNatural selection could not occur without genetic _variation_ in species.
5 Who proposed the idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics? LamarkWhat do scientists study when looking at biochemical similarities among organisms?DNA sequencesWhat would affect the evolution of a species over time?Resources in the environment and the offspring produced
6 Give an example of divergent and convergent evolution. What would happen to the populations of the same species living in different areas?They would evolve differently over time because of their different environmentsGive an example of divergent and convergent evolution.Divergent: beaks of finches on Galapagos IslandsConvergent: insect, bird, and bat wingsWhat type of population is most susceptible to loss of genetic variability as a result of genetic drift?Small populations
7 Describe and give an example of geographic isolation. When organisms are physically separated and form different species over time because of that separationButterfly species on the east coast and those on the west coast of the USList all the conditions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.Large population with no genetic driftNo migrationRandom matingNo mutationsNo natural selection
8 Explain reproductive isolation. Organisms are able to mate but don’t because they live in different areas of the same habitat or in the same habitat but can’t breed because of polyploidyDescribe how speciation could occur as a result of geographic isolation.One species gets separated into two groups by a barrier. The two groups look different from each other due to different environments.What are the pieces of evidence for evolution?Anatomy, embryology, biochemistry, paleontology
9 What is a vestigial structure and give an example. Structure that had an important function in an ancestor species but no longer serves a functionAppendix in humansHow do fossils demonstrate evidence of evolution?Shows ancient species that are similar to modern speciesWhat is a transitional fossil?A fossil of an intermediate stage in the evolution of speciesWhat do similarities in proteins of different species indicate?They share a common ancestor