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Chapter 22 Notes Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 Notes Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 22 Notes Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

2 Concept 22.1 Darwin made two points in The Origin of Species. - the species on the earth today descended from ancestral species - the mechanism for evolution is natural selection

3 Concept 22.1 Natural Selection: populations can change over time if individuals with certain traits have more offspring than other individuals The result of natural selection is evolution - the genetic composition of a population changes over time.

4 Concept 22.1 Western culture resisted evolutionary views of life In the 1700’s, biology in Europe and America was dominated by natural theology - dedicated to discovering the Creator’s plan for studying nature

5 Concept 22.1 Carolus Linnaeus sought to discover order in the diversity of life. - specialized in taxonomy: branch of biology that focuses on naming and classifying the diverse forms of life - his system of taxonomy became a focal point in Darwin’s arguments for evolution

6 Concept 22.1 The study of fossils also helped lay the groundwork for Darwin’s ideas. Fossils: impressions from the past found in sedimentary rocks formed from the sand and rocks of seas and lakes

7 Concept 22.1


9 Gradualism helped paved the way for evolution James Hutton: explained geologic features through gradualism - change is the cumulative product of a slow but continuous process

10 Concept 22.1 Charles Lyell: incorporated gradualism into uniformitarianism - geologic change occurs at a constant rate

11 Concept 22.1 Lamarck placed fossils in an evolutionary context Jean Baptiste Lamarck: published his theory of evolution in 1809 Remembered for his mechanism of evolution - first idea was use and disuse - second was inheritance of acquired characteristics

12 Concept 22.2 Darwin study of evolution first began as a naturalist on the HMS Beagle - travel around the world observing and documenting the types of plants and animals at the various locations - he did not understand the scope of the findings until after returning to England

13 Concept 22.2

14 Darwin chose not to publish his findings until prompted by Alfred Walace in 1858 The next year Darwin published The Origin of Species

15 Concept 22.2 The Origin of Species developed two main points Descent with Modification: - as populations spilled into new environments, modifications become prominent over time - helped fit organisms into ways of life

16 Concept 22.2 Natural Selection: - nature chose what features are beneficial and give an increased chance of survival The history of life is like a tree. - each fork of the tree is an ancestor who is common to others from that fork

17 Concept 22.2

18 Summary of Darwin’s main ideas -Natural selection is differential success in reproduction -Occurs through an interaction between the environment and the variability inherent among the individual organisms making up a population

19 Concept 22.2 The product of N.S. is the adaptation of populations to their environment. Connection between N.S., the struggle for existence, and the capacity of organisms to “overreproduce.” - Thomas Malthus (1798)

20 Concept 22.2 Artificial selection: the breeding of domesticated plants and animals N.S occurs between individuals and the environment, but only populations (not individuals) evolve. N.S. can amplify or diminish only heritable variations (not acquired characteristics)

21 Concept 22.3 Evidence of N.S. provides evidence for evolution Insecticide-Resistant Insects - natural selection causes the evolution of resistance to insecticides - only a few insects are resistant to the first wave insecticide

22 Concept 22.3 - those reproduce and pass on the gene to the second generation - eventually the whole population will be resistant - Drug-resistant HIV

23 Concept 22.3

24 Homology: similarity of characteristics resulting from common ancestry Anatomical Homologies - the forelimbs of mammals have the same skeletal structures (homologous structures)

25 Concept 22.3 - vestigial structures: structures of marginal, if any, importance to the organism -ex. pelvis and leg bones of snakes Embryological Homologies - all vertebrate embryos have pharyngeal pouches some time in their development.

26 Concept 22.3

27 Molecular Homologies: all species of life use the same machinery of DNA and RNA - the more similar the animals, the more similar the genetic material

28 Concept 22.3

29 Biogeography: the geographic distribution of species - first suggested evolution to Darwin - species tend to be more closely related to others from the same area than to others with the same way of life, but from other areas - ex. sugar glider (of Australia)

30 Concept 22.3

31 Islands often have a large amount of biodiversity They have many endemic species found nowhere else in the world Small changes can be seen in an island chain or archipelago

32 Concept 22.3

33 The Fossil Record The succession of fossil forms is compatible with other types of evidence for evolution - ex. prokaryote fossils are older than eukaryote fossils - ex. fish fossils, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds

34 Concept 22.3 Many fossils link older fossils with modern species. - ex. change in skull shape and size

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